Alexander Graham Bell, (born March 3, 1847, Edinburgh, Scotland—died August 2, 1922, Beinn Bhreagh, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada), Scottish-born American inventor, scientist, and teacher of the deaf whose foremost accomplishments were the invention of the telephone (1876) and the refinement of the phonograph (1886).
Robert Alexander Watson-Watt, (born April 13, 1892, Brechin, Forfarshire [now Angus], Scotland—died December 5, 1973, Inverness, Inverness-shire), Scottish physicist credited with the development of radar in England.
Born in Edinburgh, John Napier of Merchiston (1550 – 4 April 1617); nicknamed Marvellous Merchiston, was a Scottish landowner known as a mathematician, physicist, and astronomer. John Napier is best known as the discoverer of logarithms.
Alexander Fleming was a doctor and bacteriologist who discovered penicillin. Born in Ayrshire, Scotland, on August 6, 1881, and studied medicine, serving as a physician during World War I. Through research and experimentation, Fleming discovered a bacteria-destroying mold which he would call penicillin in 1928, paving the way for the use of antibiotics in modern healthcare.
John Loudon McAdam, (born Sept. 21, 1756, Ayr, Ayrshire, Scot.—died Nov. 26, 1836, Moffat, Dumfriesshire), Scottish inventor of the macadam road surface. In 1770 he went to New York City, entering the countinghouse of a merchant uncle; he returned to Scotland with a considerable fortune in 1783.
James Dewar, (born Sept. 20, 1842, Kincardine-on-Forth, Scot.—died March 27, 1923, London, Eng.), British chemist and physicist whose study of low-temperature phenomena entailed the use of a double-walled vacuum flask of his own design which has been named for him.
Charles Macintosh, (born Dec. 29, 1766, Glasgow—died July 25, 1843, near Glasgow), Scottish chemist, best known for his invention in 1823 of a method for making waterproof garments by using rubber dissolved in coal-tar naphtha for cementing two pieces of cloth together. The mackintosh garment was named for him.
Born in Helensburgh, John Logie Baird (13 August 1888 – 14 June 1946) was a Scottish engineer, innovator, one of the inventors of the mechanical television, demonstrating the first working television system on 26 January 1926, and inventor of both the first publicly demonstrated colour television system, and the first purely electronic colour television picture tube.[
Born in Dreghorn, Ayrshire, John Boyd Dunlop (1840 – 1922) invented the pneumatic tyre in 1888, unaware that Robert Thomson had already patented a design for a pneumatic tyre in 1846. Dunlop went on to market his design, initially for bicycles but the company that bore his name were soon making tyres for the new motor cars that were emerging in the 1890s.
Born in Oldmeldrum, Aberdeenshire, Patrick Manson, (3 October 1844 – 9 April 1922), was a Scottish physician who made important discoveries in parasitology, and was the founder of the field of tropical medicine. His medical career spanned Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, and London. He discovered that filariasis in Humans is transmitted by mosquitoes.
James Braid (1795-1860) is a major figure in the history of hypnotism, so much so that he is often regarded as the “Father of Hypnosis”. Born in Kinross, Scotland.
James Watt, (born January 19, 1736, Greenock, Renfrewshire, Scotland—died August 25, 1819, Heathfield Hall, near Birmingham, Warwick, England), Scottish instrument maker and inventor whose steam engine contributed substantially to the Industrial Revolution. He was elected fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1785.
James Young Simpson, (7 June 1811 – 6 May 1870) was a Scottish obstetrician and a significant figure in the history of medicine. Simpson was the first physician to demonstrate the anaesthetic properties of chloroform on humans and helped to popularise the drug for use in medicine. Born in Bathgate, West Lothian.
James Young (13 July 1811 – 13 May 1883) was a Scottish chemist best known for his method of distilling paraffin from coal and oil shales. He is often referred to as Paraffin Young.
Born in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1831, James Clerk Maxwell was one of the greatest scientists of the nineteenth century. Best known for the theory of electromagnetism and in making the connection between light and electromagnetic waves. He made significant contributions in the areas of physics, mathematics, astronomy and engineering. Considered by many as the father of modern physics.