Summary: Cats were placed in a maze with a goal to reach, with one group given a visual cue over the goal and the other without the visual cue near the goal. When shortcuts were later added to the maze, those who were given the helpful visual cue did not use them, instead using the longer routes.
Summary: When given equal rewards, capuchin monkeys behaved normally, One of the monkeys then received a greater reward and the other received the same reward as before. The lesser rewarded monkey became enraged and rejected the reward, demanding the greater reward instead.
Summary: Cleaner Wrasse remember fish whose mouths they have cleaned in the past in order to keep a steady food supply. They were shown to chose to clean fish who were visiting the reef area before those who lived permanently in the area, showing they can remember where other fish live and recognize certain individuals.
Summary: Smaller male cuttlefish will fool larger rivals in order to mate. Larger rivals will protect groups of females from other males, and the smaller males do not have a chance to mate. However, in order to fool their rivals, they will pull in their tentacles and change their color patterns to appear female.