This is an example of observational behavior in octopi. Octopi are extremely intelligent. They are able to solve puzzles (cognitive behavior), learn through observation (observational behavior), and use tools (spacial learning behavior). One example of how octopi use observational behavior to protect themselves is when they mimic other creatures to scare away enemies.
This article exhibits the migration behavior of monarch butterflies. Monarch butterflies cannot sustain themselves in cold environments so they migrate south to warmer places when the weather starts getting cold. Another reason for migration is because in the winter there is no larval food plants alive for the monarch butterflies.
This is an example of the cognitive/problem-solving behavior. Crows are able to solve complex puzzles because of their advanced intellectual skills. In this video it can be seen that crows are able to respond to the stimuli exposed to them to find ways to get food.
This is an example of spatial learning behaviors in rats through the recognition of shape and space geometry. In an experiment done by Dumont and Colleagues, Dumont put rats in a rectangular area in which the rats were supposed to find a hidden platform. The platform was hidden behind longer walls. Rats could determine where the hidden platform was through recognizing the longer walls in contrast to the shorter walls.