Much like Mitochondrial Eve, Y Chromosome Adam can be used to trace back to a common ancestor all males in the world share. B. Bower writes about how Peter Uphill and his colleagues surveyed a little over 1,000 men and their modern Y-chromosome sequences, and using statistical analysis, they constructed a tree linking all of the men and their shared chromosomal sequences. They soon saw a pattern relating to proven anthropological theories we have now. These "branches" linked men back to men in original populations in different parts of the world. Uphill and his team soon deduced that the spread of the Y-chromosome Adam started in Africa and migrated to other parts of the world, similar to the pattern of mtDNA. As the Y-chromosome integrated itself into other populations, small subtle mutations occurred, and has created the physical variation we see today, however genetically, their sequences are much related. Even though we might look different from each other, genetically we related. ***Bower, B. "`Y guy' steps into human-evolution debate." Science News, 4 Nov. 2000, p. 295. Science In Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A67492749/SCIC?u=j084910011&sid=SCIC&xid=bc30cf0f. Accessed 25 Apr. 2018.
By simple deductions, it makes sense that we all descended from an ancestor, but we can only go far so back before names are repeats, or lost, new names are added into the family tree, or a countless number of other variables that make family history so complicated. However, genetic provides a more concrete and definite answer to the question, "are we related?' In terms of genetics, Steven Rose briefly explains how when a sperm fertilizes an egg, the male mitochondrial DNA is destroyed, and only the female mitochondrial DNA remains, and because all of us inherit mtDNA from our mothers it can be traced back to a common ancestor. Similarly, Rose goes to describe how similar calculations could be used to trace the Y Chromosome that all males inherit from their fathers. Both of this linages, either maternal or paternal, don no undergo much genetic mutations, meaning that the mt DNA you and I have, and the Y Chromosome Adam your father has, is relatively the same as our Most Recent Common Ancestor. Rose continues, and broadens the uses of modern genetics that mapping and sequencing our genetics, opens up a world to more connections. We can link people to particular groups, advice susceptibility to disease, certain diseases, and more just by finding your relatives. ***"Review: Science: Ancestral codes: Steven Rose on Adam and Eve: Mapping Human History: Discovering the Past Through Our Genes by Steve Olson 292pp, Bloomsbury, pounds 17.99." Guardian [London, England], 6 July 2002, p. 11. Health & Wellness Resource Center, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A88550807/HWRC?u=j084910011&sid=HWRC&xid=2bb6b705. Accessed 25 Apr. 2018.
Using our DNA make up, as compared to family indexing and surname research, our genetic sequences all come from our biological parents, who got them fro their parents, and their parents, and so on. Steve Olson proposes this concept that because we are all inherit DNA from our parents, it can all be traced back to find links within the whole world's population. Olson also address the question, "Who are the ancestors of today's people?" suggesting that both male and female inherit chromosomal DNA from their mothers, as everyone inherits an X chromosome, or what is also known as Mitochondrial Eve. Even though yes, we as a human race have evolved throughout time, Olson points out that we as the human race have not actually been that distant from each other, and that because different population groups have mixed among each other, we still remain genetically connected just as much as we have from the "beginning". ***Olson, Steve. “Press Release, Mapping Human History.” Houghton Mifflin Books, www.houghtonmifflinbooks.com/booksellers/press_release/olson/olson_mapping.pdf.
AJ Jacobs's recount of an experience he had about getting a call from his 12th cousin makes us all wonder, how related are we? How can somebody living on the other side of the world, in a country I have never heard of possible be related to me? Despite how crazy that might sound, AJ Jacobs tells the audience in his TED talk about how related he is to the rest of the world's population, "I'm on something on Geni called the world family tree, which has no less than a jaw-dropping 75 million people." (The world's largest family reunion ... we're all invited!). This goes to show that we are linked to each other. Linked not only by marriage or blood, but by genetics. We all hear it from our own grandmothers, "Oh dear, you have your great aunt Jenny's nose! That's what makes you a Smith!," we all inherit traits from our ancestors that have been passed down through generations a number of times link us all back to "the one" with the "original Smith nose." ***Jacobs, AJ. “The Worlds' Largest Family Reunion ... We're All Invited!” TED, 2014, www.ted.com/talks/aj_jacobs_the_world_s_largest_family_reunion_we_re_all_invited+http://www.mhrc.net/mitochondrialEve.htm.
Many argue that we all look different from each other, we're all different in our own ways. From the outside, yes, we do look different, but if you dive down deeper, microscopically we all share much more than you think with the person sitting next you. Physically, we all look different from each other, however we all share the same 99.9% of the same genetic material. We are all more genetically related than you think. However from that 0.01%, research teams are able to find, "...tiny differences in DNA can provide enough information to identify the geographic ancestry of individual men and women." (Highfield, DNA survey finds all humans are 99.9pc the same). From these subtle differences they can sequence mitochondrial DNA linking individuals to "specific populations..." by looking for " 'microsatellites' - short segments of human DNA that occur in specific patterns, which are passed down from generation to generation."(Highfield, DNA survey finds all humans are 99.9pc the same). These subtle differences create the characteristics we all associate with particular races and ethnicities. Since the beginning of time, literally, we have all been moving, from place to place, intermingling with the people around us, but genetically we have all descended from on common ancestor. Someone we are all related to and share our genetic makeup with. ***Editor, Roger Highfield Science. “DNA Survey Finds All Humans Are 99.9pc the Same.” The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 20 Dec. 2002, www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/1416706/DNA-survey-finds-all-humans-are-99.9pc-the-same.html.
Individuals at Rice University are, "Using mitochondrial genomes to gauge relatedness is a way for geneticists to simplify the task of finding common ancestors that lived long ago..." and, "Because each person's mitochondrial genome is inherited from his or her mother, all mitochondrial lineages are maternal." ('Mitochondrial Eve': Mother of all humans lived 200,000 years ago). Meaning that every one on earth today must have the same mitochondrial DNA inherited from "the Mother of Us All". Krzysztof Cyran stated that they are trying, "...to translate the differences between gene sequences into how they evolved in time," (Cyran, 'Mitochondrial Eve': Mother of all humans lived 200,000 years ago), to prove how old the Most Recent Common Ancestor is to us all, but the small minute genetic mutations that have occurred over thousand of years, makes the science behind all of this a little more complicated than simply tracing a pedigree chart all the way back two hundred thousand years to find our Mother. ***"Mother of all humans lived 200,000 years ago." NewsRx Health & Science, 5 Sept. 2010, p. 94. Health & Wellness Resource Center, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A235754988/HWRC?u=j084910011&sid=HWRC&xid=1aea7f9c. Accessed 25 Apr. 2018.