June 28, 2010, the Supreme Court ruled the 2nd amendment of the Constitution applies to the state and local governments as well as the Federal government. The second amendment is the right to bear arms. The right to be able to carry a weapon around. The case arose in 2008 when retired African American custodian Otis McDonald, and others filed to challenge provisions of a 1982 Chicago law that banned the registration of handguns and made it hard. The district court dismissed the suits. The Supreme Court reversed the Court's decision. The Supreme Court thinks that its protected under the 2nd amendment and takes in the Due Process Clause of the 14th amendment.
On April 26, 1995, the Supreme court ruled that the gun free zone act of 1990 was unconstitutional. They think that because the Congress in enacting the legislative, they had surpass their authority under the commerce clause. In March of 1992, a 12th grader Alfonso Lopez jr., took a handgun and 5 bullets to school. After receiving an anonymous tip, the police confronted Alfonso about the gun and he admitted to having it. Lopez was charged with having a firearm at school grounds. The state dropped those charges although and charged him with violating the Gun Free Zone Act. The maximum penalty for the crime was 5 years of prison. He entered a plea of not guilty and his attorneys moved to get the charges dropped. the charges wee not dropped however. Lopez was sentenced to 6 months in prison and 2 years of probation.
On January 22, 1973, the Supreme Court ruled that restrictive state regulation on abortion is unconstitutional. The court thought that Texas was being unconstitutional when they criminalized abortion. The court think it's violating the woman's rights and such. That also brought in the 14th amendment where its violating a person's right to their life, liberty, or property. The case began with a woman of the name Norma McCorvey who used a fake name which was Jane Roe. The supreme court disagreed with Roe to get an abortion. After a while the court decided to compromise. the court now says abortion is illegal after the first trimester. The court only decided this because there could be still be life for the baby by the end of the first trimester.
Wisconsin vs. Yoder was a case about the attendance of the Amish regarding school. The Supreme Court ruled on May 15, 1972, that Wisconsin's attendance laws was unconstitutional when it came to the Amish. It violated the Amish's religious views. The school's laws were violating the 1st amendment. After 3 parents refused to take their children to school according to their religion, the State of Wisconsin fond them guilty of violating the law and fined them $5. Upon the convictions there were trails. The Supreme Court of Wisconsin though however found the law to be unconstitutional to the views of the Amish religion. the case was taken to the Supreme Court were the court went again Wisconsin and went in favor of the Amish. The court felt as if missing 1 or 2 years of school wouldn't do any damage.
The Supreme Court has been having cases of freedom of speech and press for the longest. In the year of 1961, the court has faced a issue of another case like they have had before. This time its been brought upon to by the New York Times. the NY Times had obtained a copy of the legal documents that is the "Pentagon Papers". this is an internal defense department report that shows government details on the War of Vietnam. Not only that but the papers were released when at the time, people were unsure curious about the United States involvement in the war. The NY Times fought to publish it under the 1st amendment. Though there wasn't a law or anything in that matter that would have helped make a decision, the court chose in favor of the NY Times.
In the case of Tinker vs. Des Moines Tinker who was 13 was wearing an armband that protested the war in Vietnam. Tinker wasn't the only one. Including her bother, there was a whole group of people who decided to wear armbands that protested the war. The school figured out about the protest and banned it. when they were asked to remove the armbands they were suspended. They couldn't return until they agreed not to wear the armbands again. a group of parents and with the support of the ACLU, a 4 year court battle was held. The court ruled in the children's favored. The first amendment still applies at school. Students shouldn't have to shed their opinions and such things when they leave their home. School is just like any other place where you have freedom of speech and such.
Gideon vs. Wainwright ruled on March 18, 1963, was a case in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that states must provide legal counsel to indigent defendants charged with a felony. The case was centered on Clarence Gideon who was charged for allegedly stealing a pool a pool hall. In June of 1961, he requested an attorney on his first trail but was declined. He even requested for a "court-appointed" attorney but they still turned him down. Gideon was unfairly sentenced to 5 years in prison. In his trial he didn't even get to say anything and he didn't get to pick his own witnesses or anything. The witnesses they did have though seen him outside the pool hall but they didn't see him commit the crime.
Engel vs. Vitale which was ruled on June 25, 1962, was that voluntary prayer in public schools violated the 1st amendment of a state establishment of religion. This was wrong in many ways, not everyone is the same. somebody could've been born from Britain and took in their home religion but had to move to america and go to school there. now they have to change their culture and live the American way. This isn't right to some extent. The kids don't even really know what they are saying. They cant fully make decisions for themselves so they can't put the choice of praying on them. doing prayer in school is making the children feel obligated to follow this religion.
There was 4 other cases and Brown's that was combined into one big case that was called Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka (1954). This case was a series of cases all saying that the segregation of children in public schools was unconstitutional. This case was one of the milestones in the civil rights movement in which it helped consider that "separate but equal" was not equal at all. In 1896 what had lasted 6 decades, a law was passed that sanctioned African Americans from sharing what the Whites had. For example, buses, schools, water fountains, and other public faculties. some of these laws included the ''Jim Crow" law and the "separate but equal" law. On May 17, 1954 schools could be integrated by law. In May of 1955, a second opinion on the law was issued and for he schools to desegregate. Many schools defied the new law and some students had to be nationally guarded in. This movement sparked many things to happen gong down the road.
Gitlow vs. New York (1925) ruled by the Supreme Court that the U.S. Constitution's 1st amendment protection of free speech applied to state governments. This case is the reason that from now on the Supreme Court will hold the 14th amendment's due process clause on certain requirements. The State and Federal government have to hold the same standards in regulating speech. This case started when a man named Benjamin Gitlow published a newspaper article. Now this wasn't just a regular newspaper day, on the paper it advocated a violent overthrow of the U.S government. Gitlow was charged with violation of the New York criminal anarchy law (1902). This law made it a crime to encourage violence and overthrowing the government.