Education has always been a state matter, which is why the federal government got involved with the segregations that have been happening within schools. Local and state officials opposed the Brown decision to desegregate schools. A well known event that occurred that happened at Little Rock Central High School. Nine African American students volunteered at this high school where Arkansas National Guard troops didn't allow them to enter the school for two weeks. They suffered many verbal and physical harassment, military men had to escort these kids to class. They were also not allowed to enter in extracurricular at Central, but that didn't stop them for having an equal education.
Linda Brown was a child who was denied education at an all white school in Topeka, Kansas. The NAACP filed a lawsuit against the school and the Supreme Court took up the case. The NAACP argued that segregation in schools violated the 14th amendment that all citizens are equal regardless of color. Ultimately the court ruled that segregation in school did in fact violate the terms of the 14th amendment.
In “God’s Judgement of White America”, Malcolm expressively talks about the violence created by whites in the US,saying that the assassination of President Kennedy came from that violence. At twenty-one years old Malcolm x was sentenced to prison for burglary and there encountered the teachings of Elijah Muhammad. That was the leader of the Lost-Found Nation of Islam popularly known as the Black Muslims. Muhammad’s had a thesis that the white man is the devil and that a black man can not live alongside one. He was later suspended from the Black Muslims for delivering a speech against the wishes of Elijah Muhammad. After he left the organization Malcolm traveled to Mecca, and discovered that orthodox Muslims preach equality of the races, which led him to disown the argument that white men are devils. he found the Organization of Afro-American Unity and moved into socialism
The first Freedom Ride took place on May 4, 1961 when seven blacks and six whites left Washington, D.C they went on two public buses bound for the Deep South .Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 they also followed years in order to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Morgan v. Virginia and Boynton v. Virginia which ruled that segregated public buses. The plan was to ride through Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. Their final destination is New Orleans, Louisiana. They achieved their goal of the federal government to act intimidation wouldn't defeat the movement.
Many people were tired of being discriminated so they worked really hard to end segregation. The Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955 started when an African American women named Rosa Parks decided to take the seat at the back of the bus. She was heading home after a long day of work, when she started noticing that the bus she was in started to get really full and the bus driver told her to give her seat up to a white man who did not have a seat at that moment. Rosa Parks refused to give her seat up so she was arrested. The picture I chose shows Rosa Parks sitting in the bus before everything happened. Many people were affected and bothered by this, so they decided to take action. Civil Activists in Montgomery organized a one day bus boycott. This meant that people especially African Americans in this time would not ride the bus as a way to show how they were opposed to Rosa Parks being arrested for this purpose. Martin Luther King and the Montgomery Improvement Association took a big part in making a huge change as well. In 1956, Montgomery Improvement Association ended it boycott, and African Americans started to ride the bus again.
The Greensboro Sit in was a peaceful activists strategy in February 1,1960. Four college students went into a whites only lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. The students asked to be served some coffee but they were refused to and were asked to leave. They decided to sit and wait to be served even though they were receiving threats and bad treatment. This sit-in was something new and many different people started to do the same thing. They were beaten or they were thrown food at. But they resisted all of this to show them that they also deserved the same kind of rights as anybody else. 1,500 African Americans were arrested because of this activists movement. They started organizing more strategies which brought a big change as well.
Marian Anderson was a well known singer around the world but due to her skin color she was denied many opportunities. For example she was denied the right to perform at Constitution Hall by the DAR because of her color. Instead, and at the urging of Eleanor Roosevelt, Harold Ickes permitted her to perform at the Lincoln Memorial on April 9, 1939. Since that day she made history and it was a big deal that she sang the National Anthem at the March on Washington.
The March on Washington, which took place on August 28, 1963, was a gathering of more than 200,000 people in Washington D.C. It was diverse crowd standing up fighting for jobs and freedom. The infamous " I Have A Dream" speech by Martin Luther King Jr was given this day. It was one of the largest political demonstrations in U.S. history and throughout the whole march, it was done calmly and peaceful. Many important figures were present at the march like Philip Randolph, Martin Luther King Jr, and Marian Anderson and those are just a few to mention.