The segregation laws known as "Jim Crow" said that "separate but equal" was constitutional. The problem with this was that there were no standards for "equal" and things were hardly ever equal.
Before the Supreme Court case of Brown v. Board of Education, African Americans were not allowed to attend school with whites, even if they lived closer to a "white school" than a "black school." This court case determined that students of all colors should attend school together.
Malcolm X was a famous African American who was a leader during the Civil Rights Movement. He is known for saying that they will fight for equal rights using "whatever means necessary" which was very opposite of MLK's peaceful protests.
Rosa Parks was best known for refusing to give up her seat to a white man on a bus. It was her courage and action that led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott shortly after.
Martin Luther King was a famous African American who was a leader during the Civil Rights Movement. He was known for his non-violent protests, such as speeches, marches, and sit-ins. He is very famous for his "I Have a Dream" Speech.
The Civil Rights Movement was a fight for equal rights between different races during the 1950's and 1960's.