8. Topic 7: Impacts of climate on places- ocean transport routes I believe this to have the least impact for a number of reasons. For one is the time scale. There will not be much change in the trans
Direct Quotes:" "Atlas cedar of the Maghreb mountain ranges in Mediterranean North Africa, cedar forests that are declining after individual trees are first being weakened by persistent drought, then killed by a combination of fungi, insects and wildfires, we learned from a special publication about drought and heat-induced tree mortality in Forest Ecology Management from 2010." "The French research group paired two ecological models with seven general circulation climate models for the four different warming scenarios used by the IPCC (RCP2.6 to RCP8.5) and found the geographical spread of the ecological niche for both the European ash and its pathogenic fungus will be affected by 21st century climate change, but possibly in different ways: “[…]we show that climate change, by affecting the host and the pathogen separately, may uncouple their spatial distribution to create a mismatch in species interaction and so a lowering of disease transmission."
The coal industry is using carbon capture and storage as propaganda
Direct Quotes: "Climate change is linked to many different forest diseases and tree dieback crises" "carbon can be stored in soil minerals over a foot beneath the Earth's surface in what are known as "carbon sinks." Soil is able to store three times the amount of carbon found in the atmosphere, but making the connection between that fact and how to reduce carbon dioxide levels in the air is hardly understood."
Direct Quotes: "These changes are often caused by the movement of water – and the measurements are actually quite precise. An important piece of this work was making sure that we could reduce the uncertainty in the measurement enough to be able to draw these conclusions" "Things like El Niño and La Niña can cause more rain to fall over the continents. But an increase in rain in some places is also predicted by models of future anthropogenic climate change. We’re not sure really what mechanism is driving the observed increases in water stored on land, but we suspect it may be a combination of the those factors" "[The study] demonstrates that normal seasonal, annual, and multi-year climatic cycles and variability can substantially affect large-scale water budgets on land, and that this effect must be recognised and accounted for when assessing trends in water storage depletion, as well as the contribution of changes in continental water storage to sea-level changes." "At the very least, these effects need to be accounted for in global sea level budgets." "Sea levels are rising more than twice as quickly as they did for most of the 20th century. Scientists put this increase down to greater melting of glaciers and ice sheets and the oceans continuing to expand as they warm." Summary: The IPCC report assumes that the effect of variations in rainfall and evaporation on land water storage are too small to include when estimating the different components of sea level rise. the changes humans are making to land water storage added 0.38mm a year to sea levels. The new study finds that changes in rainfall and evaporation over the past decade have increased the amount of water stored on land. A new study, published in Science, says that this acceleration would have been even greater had it not been for an increase in the amount of water being stored on land. Dr Leonard Konikow, a research hydrologist with the US Geological Survey, says the paper is an “extremely valuable contribution” to understanding the influence of land water storage on sea levels. Overall, the amount of water stored on land increased by 120bn tonnes per year over the 2002-14 period, the study finds. Includes, from right to left, Greenland ice sheet, Antarctic ice sheet, land glaciers (including a correct for the Little Ice Age), and human-driven land water storage (LWS) and climate-driven LWS.
Storm surge- a rising of the sea as a result of wind and atmospheric pressure changes associated with a storm El Nino conditions: a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific, including off the Pacific coast of South America. Atmospheric circulation - the large-scale movement of air, and together with ocean circulation is the means by which thermal energy is redistributed on the surface of the Earth
Vocab: Arctic Ice Pack - The Arctic ice pack is the ice cover of the Arctic Ocean and its vicinity. The Northern Sea Route - a shipping route officially defined by Russian legislation as lying east of Novaya Zemlya and specifically running along the Russian Arctic coast from the Kara Sea, along Siberia, to the Bering Strait. The Northwest Passage - sea route to the Pacific Ocean through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Quotes - “40% quicker to ship goods from Rotterdam to Yokohama along the Northern Sea Route than it is to use the longer sea route through the Suez Canal in Egypt.”
Vocab: Environmental emergency migrants:people who flee temporarily due to an environmental disaster or sudden environmental event. Environmental forced migrants: someone forced to leave due to a slow deterioration of their environment Environmental motivated migrants: people who choose to leave to avoid possible future problems due to environmental issues. Circular migration - is the temporary and usually repetitive movement of a migrant worker between home and host areas, typically for the purpose of employment
Vocab Erythromelalgia: is a rare condition that primarily affects the feet and, less commonly, the hands (extremities). It is characterized by intense, burning pain of affected extremities, severe redness (erythema), and increased skin temperature that may be episodic or almost continuous in nature. Turbidity: is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air. Quotes: “The number of people exposed to the risk of malaria will be about 1.9 billion people by 2080.”
Quotes: “2010-2012, abnormally high temperatures during the night in the US Corn Belt lowered crop yields, and premature budding on cherry trees in the US state of Michigan in 2012 caused about $220 million lost in production.”
Biosphere: the part of the earth where all life exists (shallow layer of soil, rock, air and water around the earth’s surface 20 km thick) Biome: the world’s total collection of a particular type of vegetation community Biodiversity: the variety of plant and animal life in the world or in a particular habitat. Ecosystem: a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment. Quotes: “Some parts of the world will benefit from gains in vegetation cover as carbon dioxide levels rise and rainfall increases, while other areas will lose vegetation cover as precipitation declines or limiting factors constrain habitats”
Vocab: Carbon cycle: the network stores and flows that carbon moves through in the environment Net carbon sink: Greater number of carbon dioxide being taken in then there is being released Net carbon source: Greater number of carbon dioxide released than organisms can take in Statistics: “Flows within the carbon cycle begin with the preliminary production of carbon, much of which is done by living organisms through photosynthesis.” “About 1,672 billion tonnes of carbon are currently trapped in the Earth’s permafrost.” “Great Barrier Reef in Australia has shown a slowing of calcification rates of about 14% between 1990 and 2005 as a consequence of the combines impact of rising temperatures and ocean acidification.”