Climate change is affecting millions of people all over the world and latest figures predict that by the end of the century there will be 2 billion refugees MLA- Saint, Amanda. “2 Billion Climate Refugees within 83 Years.” Eniday, www.eniday.com/en/human_en/climate-change-refugees/. Quote- The organization provides regular Internal Displacement Updates on its website and the data shows that in June 2017 the following climate refugees were created: • Over 660,000 people evacuated in the southern provinces of Anhui, Chongqing, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunnan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan and Zhejiang between 22 and 27 June because of heavy rainfall, floods and landslides. (Update Issue 20) • Approximately 22,000 people in Myanmar were displaced by strong winds and heavy rainfall from Cyclone Mora, which made landfall on 30 May and destroyed about 4,700 houses. (Update Issue 19) • At least 78,000 people were displaced from Sri Lanka’s Southern and Western provinces, following flash floods and landslides that destroyed at least 1,500 houses and cut off many rural villages.
Cyprus has a role to play in issues concerning climate change by building up a new station to monitor the effects, General Secretary of the World Meteorological Organisation, Petteri Taalas told CNA. MLA- “Cyprus Eyes Role in Monitoring Climate Change | Kathimerini.” Altar of the Twelve Gods Sees the Light | Life, www.ekathimerini.com/228789/article/ekathimerini/news/cyprus-eyes-role-in-monitoring-climate-change. Rank- Quote- cCyprus has a role to play in issues concerning climate change by building up a new station to monitor the effects, General Secretary of the World Meteorological Organisation, Petteri Taalas told CNA. On the sidelines of the conference “Climate Change in the Mediterranean and Middle East, challenges and solutions,” Taalas underlined the urgency to start implementing the Paris Agreement and expressed hope that the Conference in Nicosia will motivate the policymakers to take more action.
Animals that turn white in the winter to hide themselves in snowy landscapes could struggle to adapt to climate change, research suggests. MLA- “Animals with White Winter Camouflage Could Struggle to Adapt to Climate Change.” Carbon Brief, 19 Feb. 2018, www.carbonbrief.org/animals-with-white-winter-camouflage-could-struggle-to-adapt-to-climate-change. Rank- 8 Quote- A new study finds that declining winter snowfall near the Arctic could have varying effects on the survival of eight mammal species that undergo a seasonal colour moult from summer brown to winter white each year. Species most at risk of standing out against the snow include mountain hares, snowshoe hares and short-tailed weasels. Without blending into the background, these animals could find it harder to hunt prey or hide from predators.
This is the first in a regular series of mini-review which highlight outstanding recently published papers that shed new light on biological responses to climate change. We chose migration as the topics MLA- Seebacher, Frank, and Eric Post. “Climate Change Impacts on Animal Migration.” Climate Change Responses, BioMed Central, 6 Aug. 2015, climatechangeresponses.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40665-015-0013-9. Quote= Movement is an integral part of the ecology of many animals, and it can affect individual fitness and population persistence by enabling foraging and predation, behavioural interactions, and migration . Migration, in particular, affects biodiversity at regional and global scales, and migratory animals affect ecosystem processes. Rank
Home | About WTO | News & events | Trade topics | WTO membership | Documents & resources | External relations Rank- 8 MLA- “WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION.” WTO | What Is the WTO? - Who We Are, www.wto.org/english/Tratop_e/envir_e/climate_impact_e.htm. Quote- One concern about trade's role in greenhouse gas emissions is its link to transportation services. International trade involves countries specializing in and exporting goods in which they have a comparative advantage and importing other goods from their trade partners. This process of international exchange requires that goods be transported from the country of production to the country of consumption. So international trade expansion is likely to lead to increased use of transportation Summary- The past half century has been marked by an unprecedented expansion of international trade. Since 1950, world trade has grown more than twenty-seven fold in volume terms. By way of comparison, the level of world GDP rose eight-fold during the same period. As a consequence, the share of international trade in world GDP has risen from 5.5 per cent in 1950 to 20.5 per cent in 2006
A report just out from a Government-owned science company details the health risks to New Zealanders from climate change. Quote- The Institute of Environmental Science and Research (ESR) report is dated September but was released only yesterday by Associate Health Minister Julie Anne Genter. It gathers peer-reviewed research to sum up the likely impacts on respiratory illness, skin cancer, infectious disease and other things. MLA- “Three Ways Climate Change Might Affect Your Health.” Newsroom, 15 May 2018, www.newsroom.co.nz/2018/05/15/109472/three-ways-climate-change-might-affect-your-health#. Copy & paste citation Rank- 2
The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment Quote- Figure ES6: Changes in Lyme Disease Case Report Distribution Figure ES6: Changes in Lyme Disease Case Report Distribution VIEW Vector-borne diseases are illnesses that are transmitted by vectors, which include mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. These vectors can carry infective pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoa, which can be transferred from one host (carrier) to another. The seasonality, distribution, and prevalence of vector-borne diseases are influenced significantly by climate factors, primarily high and low temperature extremes and precipitation patterns. MLA- Usgcrp. “The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment.” The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment, 4 Apr. 2016, health2016.globalchange.gov/. Rank
In 2016, the U.S. Global Change Research Program produced a report that analyzed the impacts of global climate change on human health in the United States. The report finds that MLA- “Climate Impacts on Human Health.” EPA, Environmental Protection Agency, 13 Jan. 2017, 19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/climate-impacts/climate-impacts-human-health_.html. Quote- People exposed to higher levels of ground-level ozone are at greater risk of dying prematurely or being admitted to the hospital for respiratory problems Rank- 2
Extreme weather events linked to climate change can cause major damage — destroying homes and livelihoods. Caribbean islanders have seen some of the worst effects. Could climate insurance help? MLA- Deutsche Welle. “Insuring against Extreme Weather in the Caribbean | DW | 15.05.2018.” DW.COM, www.dw.com/en/insuring-against-extreme-weather-in-the-caribbean/a-43789617 Rank- 7 Direct Quote- Some insurers and governments are offering "micro insurance" products that could help those on a low-income to get back on their feet after a disaster. But many are sceptical of the promises made by insurance firms. A pilot project on a number of Caribbean Islands wants to show locals how it could work.
Soil erosion negatively affects crop yields and may have contributed to the collapse of ancient civilizations. Whether erosion may have such an impact on modern societies as well, is subject to... Rank MLA- Bakker, Martha M., et al. “The Effect of Soil Erosion on Europe's Crop Yields.” SpringerLink, Springer, Dordrecht, 14 Sept. 2007, link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10021-007-9090-3. Direct quote- Soil erosion negatively affects crop yields and may have contributed to the collapse of ancient civilizations. Whether erosion may have such an impact on modern societies as well, is subject to debate. In this paper we quantify the relationship between crop yields and soil water available to plants, the most important yield-determining factor affected by erosion, at the European scale. Using information on the spatial distribution of erosion rates we calculate the potential threat of erosion-induced productivity losses.
Soil erosion is a gradual process that occurs when the impact of water or wind detaches and removes soil particles, causing the soil to deteriorate. Soil deterioration and low water quality due to erosion RANK MLA- “Soil Erosion: An Agricultural Production Challenge.” Maize Dwarf Mosaic | Integrated Crop Management, crops.extension.iastate.edu/soil-erosion-agricultural-production-challenge. DIRECT QUOTE- Erosion is a serious problem for productive agricultural land and for water quality concerns. Controlling the sediment must be an integral part of any soil management system to improve water and soil quality. Eroded topsoil can be transported by wind or water into streams and other waterways. Sediment is a product of land erosion and derives largely from sheet and rill erosion from upland areas, and to a lesser degree, from cyclic erosion activity in gullies and drainage ways
If New Zealand is to reach carbon neutrality by 2050, agriculture will have to reinvent itself. Veronika Meduna looks at new options for farmers to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Key Terms MLA- “Insight: Farming and the Fight Against Climate Change.” Radio New Zealand, 19 May 2018, www.radionz.co.nz/national/programmes/insight/audio/2018645479/insight-farming-and-the-fight-against-climate-change. Direct Quote- It will take a few more years before low-emitting animals can be introduced into the entire national flock, and even then, breeding is a slow process and won’t reduce emissions quickly. Other technologies under development that could make a bigger dent into farm emissions include research into methane vaccines and chemical inhibitors that throttle methane production in the rumen, the first chamber of the stomach of cud-chewing animals. Rank- 7
Warming temperatures are causing a dangerous chain reaction in the Antarctic that is further driving ice melt, sea level rise MLA- “Antarctic Glacial Meltwater Driving Ice Melt, Sea Level Rise • Earth.com.” Earth.com, www.earth.com/news/antarctic-glacial-meltwater-sea-level/. Key Terms Direct Quote- The increase in glacial meltwater in the Antarctic is also slowing down ocean currents which reduces the ocean’s carbon and heat storage abilities. Rank- 3
Offsets in radiocarbon concentration within the ocean or between the ocean and the atmosphere are particularly useful proxies for a variety of studies. - Key Terms -Radocarbon- a radioactive isotope of carbon. Direct Quote- The Earth’s carbon reservoirs are distributed within the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. In fact, even tiny microbes are carbon reservoirs, but scientists tend to group small reservoirs into larger categories (e.g., ocean, atmosphere, biosphere), important at the global scale. MLA- Alves, Eduardo Queiroz. “Radiocarbon in the Oceans.” Eos, 27 Apr. 2018, eos.org/editors-vox/radiocarbon-in-the-oceans.
Set aside the politics. If by some miracle we turned off carbon emissions immediately, how would the climate respond? Key Terms- Direct Quote- One of the goals of the international Paris Agreement on climate change is to limit the increase of the global surface average air temperature to 2 degrees Celsius, compared to preindustrial times. There is a further commitment to strive to limit the increase to 1.5℃. Rank- 6 MLA- Rood, Richard B. “If We Stopped Emitting Greenhouse Gases Right Now, Would We Stop Climate Change?” The Conversation, The Conversation, 18 May 2018, theconversation.com/if-we-stopped-emitting-greenhouse-gases-right-now-would-we-stop-climate-change-78882.
Aviation is growing at immense speed, but its expansion comes at the expense of the environment. So what if flight routes were changed to minimise this? Direct Quote- The Government of Canada's Disaster Mitigation and Adaptation Fund (DMAF) is a 10-year, $2 billion national program designed to help communities better withstand current and future risks of natural hazards. DMAF will support large-scale infrastructure projects with a minimum cost of $20 million. MLA- “Government of Canada Launches New Fund to Help Reduce the Impacts of Climate Change and Better Protect Canadians against Natural Disasters.” CNW, PRNewswire, www.newswire.ca/news-releases/government-of-canada-launches-new-fund-to-help-reduce-the-impacts-of-climate-change-and-better-protect-canadians-against-natural-disasters-682931091.html. Rank- 5
How can zebra excrement tell us what an animal's response to climate change and habitat destruction will be? That is what scientists have been investigating in South Africa. MLA- “Zebra Scat Science Improves Conservation Efforts.” ScienceDaily, ScienceDaily, 1 Nov. 2017, www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/11/171101102640.htm.
Wildfires amid climate change may spark a radical shift in forest habitats and wildlife. They aren't just a destructive force of man and nature. They're a key factor in forest ecosystem renewal. MLA- Goulet, Benjamin. “Forced to Move: Climate Change Already Displacing U.S. Communities.” KCET, KCETLink Media Group, 27 Apr. 2018, www.kcet.org/shows/earth-focus/forced-to-move-climate-change-already-displacing-us-communities. Key Terms- Wildfire- a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area. Direct Quote- Over the past 5,000 years, repeated cycles of burning followed by vegetation recovery have allowed conifer forests to flourish into the great forested biome that today covers much of Canada.
Climate change, expected to displace up to 200 million people by 2050, is cited as the number one global security threat of the 21st century. MLA- Goulet, Benjamin. “Forced to Move: Climate Change Already Displacing U.S. Communities.” KCET, KCETLink Media Group, 27 Apr. 2018, www.kcet.org/shows/earth-focus/forced-to-move-climate-change-already-displacing-us-communities. Key Terms- Climate Change- The changes in global patterns of rainfall and temperature, sea level, habitats and the incidences of droughts, floods, and storms, resulting from the changes in the earth's atmosphere over an extended period of time Direct Quote- while the global displacement and migration of lower and middle-income countries make headlines, the U.S. is not immune to these situations. In 2016, two U.S. communities — both very different in terms of geography and demographics — made history for relocating their respective towns because climate change greatly altered their land
Due to climate change, many companies are changing course and reimagining shipping routes. Shipping vessels often can travel greater distances cheaply. MLA- Martin, Katriona, and Cronkite News. “Extreme Heat, Environmental Factors Could Threaten Health of AZ Residents.” Eastern Arizona Courier, 6 May 2018, www.eacourier.com/copper_era/news/extreme-heat-environmental-factors-could-threaten-health-of-az-residents/article_b09ed980-50cb-11e8-9950-178e05349a0c.html. Direct Quote - As the human imprint on Earth is being seen and felt more and more, and the rise of CO2 emissions continues to accelerate, bringing with it a rise in sea levels, melting ice caps, unpredictable and sometimes severe weather changes, and a slew of other negative consequences, the routes these vessels take are, by extension, largely affected. Key Terms- Global Warming- The changes in global patterns of rainfall and temperature, sea level, habitats and the incidences of droughts, floods, and storms, resulting from the changes in the earth's atmosphere over an extended period of time
PHOENIX – Think it’s hot now? Just wait: Some climate researchers predict Arizona will be unlivable by 2050. Direct Quote- Experts predict temperatures will rise an additional 10 degrees Fahrenheit over the next seven decades. With more heat, researchers say, comes more air pollution and allergens MLA- Martin, Katriona, and Cronkite News. “Extreme Heat, Environmental Factors Could Threaten Health of AZ Residents.” Eastern Arizona Courier, 6 May 2018, www.eacourier.com/copper_era/news/extreme-heat-environmental-factors-could-threaten-health-of-az-residents/article_b09ed980-50cb-11e8-9950-178e05349a0c.html.
Greenland's ice is largely responsible for the accelerating pace of sea-level rise. A new analysis shows that, while Greenland accounted for just 5% of the rise in 1993, that figure rose to 25% by 201 - Key Vocab - Direct Quote- Globally, the rate of sea-level rise has been increasing since the 19th century. As a result, the rate during the 20th century was significantly greater than during previous millennia. The rate of rise over the past two decades has been larger still. MLA Citation- Church, John, et al. “Contributions to Sea-Level Rise Have Increased by Half since 1993, Largely Because of Greenland's Ice.” The Conversation, 1 May 2018, theconversation.com/contributions-to-sea-level-rise-have-increased-by-half-since-1993-largely-because-of-greenlands-ice-79175.
Vital Signs of the Planet: Global Climate Change and Global Warming. Current news and data streams about global warming and climate change from NASA. - The first graph tracks the change in sea level since 1993 as observed by satellites. - The second graph, derived from coastal tide gauge data, shows how much sea level changed from about 1870 to 2000. MLA Citation- “Sea Level | NASA Global Climate Change.” NASA, NASA, 29 Mar. 2018, climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/sea-lev Key Vocab- Climate Change- A change in weather patterns brought on by the increased levels of carbon dioxide in atmosphere due to the overuse of fossil fuels Direct Quote- The sea is rising by 3.2 millimeters a year currently Ranking-
A new study, published in Science, looks at the impact land water storage has had on rates of sea level rise.
NASA's Aqua satellite used microwaves to capture this snapshot of Arctic sea ice on September 3, 2010. The yearly minimum had not yet been reached, which normally occurs in mid-September.Credit: NASA