This document contains all of my ranking and overall justification for my sources.
Topic: Water storage in ice, oceans and changing sea level Vocab: Paradox: a seemingly absurd or contradictory statement or proposition which when investigated may prove to be well founded or true. Summary: This article talks about Kurubatia, Bangladesh and how the rising sea levels have taken us a large portion of before above sea levels land. Already much of Kutubdia has been swallowed by rising seas, leaving countless families with nothing. "Nurul Haque, a farmer who lost all his land to the ocean, told me that he may have to pull his daughter, Munni Akter, 13, out of eighth grade and marry her off to an older man looking for a second or third wife, because he has few financial options left to support her". One of the paradoxes of climate change is that the world’s poorest and most vulnerable people — who contribute almost nothing to warming the planet — end up being most harmed by it. It seems that many families did the same as Nurul, they are marrying off their daughters as to obtain land not engulfed in water and for financial support because their livelihood was literally washed away. MLA: Kristof, Nicholas. “Swallowed by the Sea.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 19 Jan. 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/01/19/opinion/sunday/climate-change-bangladesh.html.
Topic: Extreme weather- incidence and severity of weather events (including droughts) Vocab: Coral Bleaching: a phenomenon in which coral expel vital algae from their tissue has a white appearance. Phenomenon: a fact or situation that is observed to exist or happen, especially one whose cause or explanation is in question. Summary: This article outlines 5 extreme weather events that happened and how climate change caused it. #1 - The arctic high temps lately This talks about the higher temperature are melting ice which rising sea levels and causes major flooding in some areas of the world. #2 - Coral bleaching in the great barrier reef This talks about how warmer temperatures in the Pacific oceans causes coral bleaching which is a phenomenon in which coral expel vital algae from their tissue has a white appearance. "If the warm water temperatures persist, many corals can die off, with dire consequences for the marine ecosystems that depend on them" #3 - Major drought in Africa In the first few months of 2016, severe droughts and heat waves spread across much of southern Africa, triggering local food and water shortages that affected millions. #4 - Wildfires in North America In 2016, wildfires burned about 8.9 million acres of western Canada and the United States, including a particularly destructive fire in Alberta that forced mass evacuations and destroyed 2,400 homes. Here, climate change most likely played a supporting role. #5 - The warm “blob” in the Pacific Ocean Over the past few years, a large patch of unusually warm water has appeared off the coast of Alaska, popularly known as “the blob.” These warm waters have allowed toxic algae blooms to spread across the region, killing seabirds by the thousands and forcing local fisheries to close. As you can see all of these disasters/phenomena caused by climate change has caused issues with environment, economy and more! MLA: Plumer, Brad, and Nadja Popovich. “How Global Warming Fueled Five Extreme Weather Events.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 14 Dec. 2017, www.nytimes.com/2017/12/14/climate/climate-extreme-weather-attribution.html.
Topic: Extreme weather- incidence and severity of weather events (including droughts Vocab: Feedback loop: a term to refer to a situation where part of the output of a situation is used for new input. Summary: In late February of this year, the Arctic experienced temperatures 25º F above the average, this resulted in rapid melting of the ice caps and a feedback loop/ domino effect throughout the earth. "In recent years, the air at the Arctic Ocean surface during winter has warmed by over 5 degrees Fahrenheit above normal." This recent spate of warm weather could be linked to longer-term climate change from past years. weather patterns and trends are continually changing but not this rapidly! This warming is posing major threats to coastal communities and wildlife in the Arctic. Thinner sea ice is more mobile and deforms more easily from winds and currents. All of this melting has caused extreme weather events to happen worldwide but poses the largest threat to island countries and coastal cities with flooding. Preparing for future shifts in weather extremes also requires a better understanding of how the climate is changing. This will require long-term government investment in surface-based and satellite observations, and in the continued development of new computer models for improved predictions. The extreme Arctic warming this winter is a foreshadowing of things to come. On our current greenhouse emissions trajectories, the Arctic Ocean is expected to be ice-free in late summer by about midcentury or possibly as early as 2030, depending on natural variability. MLA: Bitz, Cecilia. “Hot Times in the Arctic.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 14 Mar. 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/03/14/opinion/temperature-climate-students.html.
Topic: Extreme weather- incidence and severity of weather events (including droughts Vocab: Acidification: a term used to describe significant changes to the chemistry of the ocean. It occurs when carbon dioxide gas (or CO2) is absorbed by the ocean and reacts with seawater to produce acid. Summary: "Climate change is the greatest global threat to coral reef ecosystems, and scientific evidence now clearly indicates that the Earth's atmosphere and ocean are warmings". A changing climate is affecting the great barrier reef severely! This infographic outlines how what we are doing on land is affecting what is happening under the water, specifically on the great barrier reef. It gives examples of things that we are doing that cause harm and things that we can do to help create less destruction to the earth. It's pretty straightforward and easy to understand. MLA: “Infographic: How Does Climate Change Affect Coral Reefs?” National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 23 Apr. 2018, www.noaa.gov/infographic/infographic-how-does-climate-change-affect-coral-reefs.
Topic: Impacts of climate on places- ocean transport routes Vocab: Summary: This graphic acknowledges the need for new technological advances in shipping on the seas and presents new eco-friendly boat designs and why we need them. The boats are mostly cruise ships and not ships for transporting goods across the sea but its all baby steps. It shows the capacity, length, and features of the boat that makes it a need for the future. One example of a boat is the Vindskip that is "symmetrical aerofoil-shaped hill designed to harness wind propulsion in tandem with LNG; fuel savings for 60 percent and reduce carbon emissions by 80 percent compared with conventional shipping" MLA: iNewsGraphics. “The Future of Shipping - Moving to Use Cleaner Oil-Based Fuels and Alternative Energy. #Infographic @Theipaper #Shipping #Cruises #Transport #Environment #Tech #Dataviz Pic.twitter.com/C0LvM5wvwZ.” Twitter, Twitter, 3 Jan. 2018, twitter.com/inewsgraphics/status/948534146808401921.
Topic: Impacts of climate on places- ocean transport routes Vocab: Ice caps: a covering of ice over a large area Summary: "Shipping cargo around the world is a vital service that’s worth billions of dollars and is integral to economies all over the planet" but global warming and the amount of GHG emissions is getting so large that we cannot ignore the fact about how much GHG emissions shipping releases into our world. The article talks a lot about rising sea levels and how animals in the Arctic and Antarctic are being affected. As for shipping routes, an approach to this not commonly taken is that with the ice caps in the arctic and antarctic it has cleared a passage for ships to move through the north pole which makes some shipping routes a lot shorter. Along with shorter routes the fuel cost will drop by 40%. This article took a more positive approach looking at a new thing that they can do to help the planet using some negative consequences of climate change. MLA: Levins, Cory. “Air Sea Containers Compliance Blog.” Air Sea Containers Store, 8 June 2017, www.airseacontainers.com/blog/how-global-warming-is-affecting-shipping-routes/.
Topic: Impacts of climate on places- ocean transport routes Vocab: Marshall islands: sprawling chain of volcanic islands and coral atolls in the central Pacific Ocean. I.M.O.: International Maritime Organization Summary: "International shipping is the backbone of our global trading system. But it can no longer be given a free pass on climate change". This article is all about how these international shipping boats are the 6th largest producers of greenhouse gases and how they need to fit that in the coming years. The International Maritime Organization, or IMO has talked a lot on this concern saying if we don't take action quickly, there is no hope of keeping the global temperature increase below the tipping points set by the Paris climate agreement. The Marshall Islands first proposed an industry-wide target to curb shipping’s rising emissions in the lead-up to the 2015 Paris climate conference. While they are very threatened by rising sea levels they also host the world’s second-largest shipping registry and are almost entirely reliant on sea transportation for food and other crucial supplies. In Paris, the Marshall Islands went on to form a High Ambition Coalition of progressive countries that was very crucial to making the final agreement happen. MLA: Heine, Hilda, and Christiana Figueres. “Polluters on the High Seas.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 6 Apr. 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/04/06/opinion/greenhouse-gases-international-shipping.html.
Topic: Impacts of climate change on places and people- migration Vocab: accommodate: (of a building or other area) provide lodging or sufficient space for. sentiment: a view or opinion that is held or expressed Summary: There are hundreds of thousands of people living on low-lying Pacific islands who may be forced to migrate if rising sea levels leave their homes uninhabitable. "They see [refugee] as a negative term that connotes victimhood and people in need of protection by the international community". For them, it signifies that they've become people who don't have any agency or aren't able to contribute. Kiribati's president Anote Tong said, I have never encouraged the status of our people being refugees, but we have to acknowledge the reality that with the rising sea levels are making it difficult to stay. They are very set on educating their people and training their people to become good citizens before having to move to other places. MLA: “Pacific Islanders Reject 'Climate Refugee' Status.” ABC News, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 6 Sept. 2014, www.abc.net.au/news/2014-09-05/pacific-islanders-reject-calls-for-27climate-refugee27-status/5723078.
Topic: Impacts of climate change on places and people- migration Vocab: Environmental Migrants/ Climate Refugees - people who are displaced and forced to migrate because of consequences of changing environmental conditions. Summary: The International Organization for Migration in Geneva Switzerland classifies three types of environmental migrants. 1 - Environmental emergency migrants, 2 - Environmental forced migrants, and 3 - Environmental motivated migrants. Environmental refugees may also become political refugees, there are many examples including the Darfur region of Sudan, the Civil War in Somalia and the Syrian civil war. "The increasing frequency and severity of hurricanes can lead directly to migration of people from low-lying areas as they attempt to escape". Fact: There are more people displaces by climate-related events rather than geophysical-related events. This is shown in the graph above looking at the percentages of each category throughout time. In general, poorer people have less capacity to adapt to climate change, they are also more likely to be located in vulnerable areas being subject to a lot of climate change disasters. Low lying island nations are especially at risk of flooding, high tides, and big storms. Mass evacuation and permanent migration are usually the outcomes of small islands like these. MLA: Codrington, Stephen. Our Changing Planet. 1st ed., Solid Star Press Sydney, 2017.
Topic: Impacts of climate change on places and people- migration Vocab: climate departure - describes the point in time that the average temperature of the coolest year after 2005 becomes warmer than the historic average temperature of the hottest year. Summary: This graphic shows the estimated year of climate departure all around the world. "Using temperature data from 1860 to 2005 as a baseline, climate departure describes the point in time that the average temperature of the coolest year after 2005 becomes warmer than the historic average temperature of the hottest year". As you can see in the map of the world there are patterns and trends that it has. Patters: Places a bit above the equator seem to have an estimated year of climate departure around 2043, you can see a line of yellow dots positioned laterally on the map a little bit above the equator. Other patterns are that there are very few if no places that are below yellow, as in grey or green indicating that very few places are estimated for climate departure after 2053. MLA: Peio. “Has the Era of the 'Climate Change Refugee' Begun?” Different Depths Reveal Ocean Warming Trends, 1 Jan. 1970, blog.geogarage.com/2014/08/has-era-of-climate-change-refugee-begun.html.
Topic: Impacts of climate change on places and people-health Vocab: Depletion - reduction in the number or quantity of something Ecosystem - a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment. Summary: Suffering from effects like droughts and flooding, here are five places already being affected by climate change and global warming. This article goes through 5 examples of places under stress from climate change. The Great Barrier Reef Waters warmed by 0.2 degrees Celsius on average over the past 25 years. In 2012 a study showed that half of the Great Barrier Reef was lost in the past 27 years! The overall issue is that warming oceans, linked to rising emissions of carbon dioxide, increase the risk of coral bleaching which kills the coral. It makes them expel the tiny animals and algae that live inside them. This turns the corals white and "places the reef-building animals — and the entire ecosystem — under stress". Newtok Alaska There is an abundance of permafrost in Alaska and with warming weather, it is melting all of the permafrost which causes remote coastal cities in Alaska to sink eventually. 5 Places Already Feeling the Effects of Climate Change Satellite image shows islands of the Great Barrier Reef. Credit: NASA/Landsat 7 The effects of a warming planet are likely to be vast and varied — ranging from increased droughts and coastal flooding to reductions in snow and ice. But while most climate predictions look ahead to the potential risks 50 or 100 years from now, there are places around the globe that are already being impacted by global warming. Here are five places where climate change is already hitting close to home: Great Barrier Reef Satellite measurements have demonstrated that the waters of Australia's Great Barrier Reef have warmed by 0.36 degrees Fahrenheit (0.2 degrees Celsius) on average over the past 25 years. This warming has led to a decline in the amount of seafloor covered in thriving coral. A 2012 study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found that half of the Great Barrier Reef was lost in the past 27 years. Warming oceans, linked to rising emissions of carbon dioxide, increase the risk of coral bleaching — a phenomenon that disrupts the symbiotic relationship between corals and the organisms that live within their tissues and provide food the corals need to survive. Higher-than-normal ocean temperatures cause corals to expel the tiny animals and algae that live inside them. This turns the corals white and places the reef-building animals — and the entire ecosystem — under stress. Newtok, Alaska Newtok, and many other villages in Alaska are built atop permanently frozen soil, called permafrost. As ocean temperatures increase, Alaska's permafrost melts, causing the ground to erode and many of these remote, coastal towns to sink. Newtok is located on the western coast of Alaska, on the edge of the rising Ninglick River. The flood-prone town already sits below sea level, and researchers have said the entire village could be underwater within a decade. [What 11 Billion People Mean for Climate Change] Now, members of the community are hoping to relocate Newtok's 350 residents to higher ground, at a site roughly 9 miles (14 kilometers) away. But there are financial and political barriers. For instance, the U.S. Government Accountability Office estimates that moving the town of Newtok could cost up to $130 million. Mumbai, India "The Indian metropolis of Mumbai is one of the places at risk of dangerous and costly floods due to climate change". Climate change has made it so that they face a very high risk of devastating floods in the near future The Alps The alps huge ski resorts are at risk as they have been and still are steadily melting as the years go on. As the years pass the average temperature rises. 40% of Europe's freshwater also comes from the alps so that is the more pressing matter if it all melts than Europe cannot utilize as much as it has in the past which it will need because of huge drought in other places in the world. Gansu Province, China Droughts and arid land contribute to the region's vast poverty but that's only one of the there problems. 28,000 of the country's rivers have disappeared since the 1990s dispire the shrinking of a bunch of china's glaciers and with the growing population there supply will be dipleated very quickly. MLA: Chow, Denise. Www.livescience.com, LiveScience, 21 Nov. 2013, www.livescience.com/41380-climate-change-places-at-risk.html.
Topic: Impacts of climate change on places and people-health Vocab: GHG - Green House Gases Contamination - being made impure by polluting or poisoning Summary: This infographic comes from healthyvermont.gov from many studies combines to create this easy to follow illustration. The health department in Vermont says "Taking action to minimize the impacts of climate change can improve the health of Vermonters today and in the future" The infographic goes over four main factors affecting our earth right now, these factors are rising temperature, extreme weather, air quality and vector-borne diseases. Each factor is color coordinated so you can see how the chain effect moves down the infographic and always links to human health is an issue in the future. MLA: “Climate & Health.” Vermont Department of Health, Health Vermont, www.healthvermont.gov/environment/climate.
Topic: Impacts of climate change on places and people-health Vocab: Baseline - a minimum or starting point used for comparisons. intergovernmental - relating to or conducted between two or more governments. Summary: This article pulls out specific passages and evidence from something called The Lancet which is one of the world’s most prestigious medical journals. It talks about how much climate change has caused and rapidly spread disease. 24 universities and intergovernmental organizations created environmental indicators such as heat waves, weather-related disasters, climate-sensitive diseases, exposure to air pollution and malnutrition to monitor in the coming years. This report does a good job of telling us that the health professions have a responsibility to communicate the threats and opportunities nowadays. Some everyday examples of the impact on people is the commission found that outdoor labor capacity in rural areas fell, on average, by 5.3 percent over the past 16 years because of heat stress and other conditions making work more difficult. They also found that an additional 175 million people over the age of 65 were exposed to heat waves when compared with broad trends of the past 20 years. Along with direct diseases affecting people, there is a huge financial crisis happening which is affecting poor countries the most because they cannot pay all that they need to help their country thrive in the changing of earths climate. MLA: Nesbit, Jeff. “Climate Change Is Bad for Your Health.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 30 Oct. 2017, www.nytimes.com/2017/10/30/opinion/climate-change-health-heat.html.
Topic: Agriculture- crop yields, limits of cultivation and soil erosion Vocab: Crop yield - a measurement of the amount of agricultural production harvested per unit of land area Paris Agreement - An agreement that most countries in the world have signed about reducing GHG emissions Summary: Former president Barak Obama spoke at a conference called the Seeds & Chips conference in Milan. He spoke about agriculture’s role in climate change, noting that after energy, agriculture is the second-largest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. He said “Our changing climate is already making it more difficult to produce food,” and also saying, “We’ve already seen shrinking yields and rising food prices”. With this rising prices come the whole issue of the poor at an even larger disadvantage in society. Obama brought up the point that many of the refugees seeking sanctuary in Europe are driven not by conflict but by famine because of these rising prices. The overall premise of what he was talking about was that agriculture is making the production of food harder and with this comes a whole chain of problems ultimately effecting the impoverished of the world. In the questionnaire proceeding his speech they talked about the Paris agreement and the good that they are doing, with President Trump has threatened to withdraw from the 2015 accord, they have people worried. The last thing that he talks about is how GHG are increasing worldwide because of the worlds changing diets, money and resources limit diet and agriculture seems to be getting more expensive by the year. MLA: Strom, Stephanie. “Obama Sees New Front in Climate Change Battle: Agriculture.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 9 May 2017, www.nytimes.com/2017/05/09/dining/obama-climate-food-milan.html.
Topic: Agriculture- crop yields, limits of cultivation and soil erosion Vocab: Vegetation: plants considered collectively, especially those found in a particular area or habitat. Summary: It has been observed that major influxes of sediment seem to be coming "at climate transitions, rather than after climate changes or shifts have had a chance to settle in and exert their impacts for a while." A related issue is a relationship between precipitation, temperature, runoff, erosion, and vegetation. As climate changes both temperature and precipitation regimes change. Soil Erosion on cropland Increases in available moisture, also called effective precipitation, would tend to promote both runoff and soil erosion on the one hand, and vegetation cover on the other. To illustrate soil erosion and vegetation the graphic used in the cover has these instructions, Green arrows indicate positive links and red arrows are negative links. MLA Format: “Geography.” Soil Erosion and Climate Change | Geography, College of Arts and Science, geography.as.uky.edu/blogs/jdp/soil-erosion-and-climate-change.
Topic: Agriculture- crop yields, limits of cultivation and soil erosion Vocab: Benefit crops: crops meant to benefit the soil instead of crop productivity crop productivity: the ratio of planted and successfully grown crops Humus: decaying plant matter Summary: (Pages 175-178) Because the earth is warming some places are getting more rainfall but most are experiencing drought, with natural disasters getting more severe it is understandable that this has a big impact on farming. Warmer weather means a longer growth period for some crops and CO2 in the air acts as a fertilizer speeding up photosynthesis. Unpredictable weather can cause a loss in entire acres, an example is in 2012 the US state of Michigan $220 million was lost from this. The map above shows the projected changes in agricultural productivity due to climate change by 2080. Soil quality is an important factor in agriculture. Horizons are formed from rock weathering and erosion breaks down rocks further and further. increased plant growth result in more fertile land and soil to use. Weeds grow alongside normal crops which expands the number of unwanted plants. Farmers raising livestock better watch out! "Higher temperatures cause stress in livestock by making the animals more susceptible to disease, reducing the yield of milk or wool and reducing fertility and reproduction rates." MLA Citation: Codrington, Stephen. Our Changing Planet. 1st ed., Solid Star Press Sydney, 2017.
Topic: Spatial changes to biomes, habitats, and animal migration patterns Vocab: climate change: a change in weather patterns that can alter environments predictor species: an organism that is very sensitive to changes in its environment range: the region throughout which an organism naturally lives Summary: This source talks about how since the earth has gotten slightly warmer that ecosystems, habitats and entire species have had to adapt. "when habitats change, animals must, too. Some animals can't survive the changes. So they move to find new habitats or even go extinct. Others thrive with the changes. Their populations grow and spread out." They give examples such as coral reefs, frogs, birds and more. Predictor species help humans know that there has been a change in climate because while we may not feel the difference, certain aminals do and you can use them for data or indicators. MLA Citation: Wedner , Diane. Discoverer.prod.sirs.com, National Geographic Society, Mar. 2014, discoverer.prod.sirs.com/discoweb/disco/do/article?urn=urn%3Asirs%3AUS%3BARTICLE%3BART%3B0000362819.
Topic: Spatial changes to biomes, habitats, and animal migration patterns Vocab: Ecosystem: a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment. Fragmentation: the process or state of breaking or being broken into fragments. Summary: "Climate is an important environmental influence on ecosystems. Negative impacts to species and habitats have already been observed due to climate change". Warming is likely to force some species to migrate to higher latitudes or higher elevations where temperatures are more conducive to their survival. Similarly, as sea level rises, saltwater intrusion into a freshwater system may force some key species to relocate or die, thus removing predators or prey that were critical in the existing food chain. Climate change not only affects ecosystems and species directly – it also interacts with other human stressors such as development. The graphic explains some species that are affected by climate change. MLA Format: “Impacts to Species and Habitats.” Conservation in a Changing Climate, Conservation in the Changing Climate, climatechange.lta.org/climate-impacts/species-and-habitats/.
Topic: Spatial changes to biomes, habitats, and animal migration patterns Vocab: Biomes - A large natural community including a major habitat Summary: This is a presentation made for the purpose of explaining how climate change affects spatial changes in biomass. Climate change affects biodiversity in places like the Amazonian rainforest and melts ice affecting the home of plat bears and penguins. Habitat loss creates a need for animals to go places they naturally wouldn't. This messes up migration patterns for animals such as birds who migrate to warm places in the winter of other places. One animal example is Salmon, the number of salmon has decreased a lot due to climate change which changes in freshwater ecosystems rising temperatures. Now, this changes the economy of the area because salmon is one of the most costly fish in the fish market so when they are decreasing the demand is still high but supply is low. Salmon is also a prime food source for other animals such as seals, whales, and bears. This also changes the fishermen because they cannot pay for their boats if they are not catching salmons. MLA Format: Chung, Byeola. “Impact of Climate Change on Spatial Changes in Biomes, Habit.” Prezi.com, Prezi, 16 Oct. 2017, prezi.com/n3ua6pjex0ew/impact-of-climate-change-on-spatial-changes-in-biomes-habit/.
Topic: Carbon storage in ice, ocean, and biosphere Vocab: Arctic and Antarctic: The north and south pole regions of the earth Summary: This infographic is about the Arctic and the Antarctic and the effect that heat has on the ice and how much it has decreased in the last few decades. It states, "The total amount of heat stored by the oceans is called ocean heat content and goes much deeper than surface temperature. Water can absorb and hold heat better than air, so arctic sea ice is easily affected by rising ocean temperatures". This infographic is meant to put in perspective how much smaller our Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets are becoming throughout the years. MLA Format: Kelly, Daniel. “Infographic: Polar Ice.” Environmental Measurement Systems, Environmental Monitor, 9 Feb. 2016, www.fondriest.com/news/infographic-polar-ice.htm.
Topic: Carbon storage in ice, ocean, and biosphere Vocab: Carbohydrates: any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose. Summary: Exploring the Environment - Global Climate Change (ETE-GCC) Modules developed by the Center for Educational Technologies at Wheeling Jesuit University includes six new global climate change problems. Compounds that contain the element carbon are referred to as "organic." The article says, "Carbon is continually moving among Earth's lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere in various forms: as carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, sugars or carbohydrates (CnH2nOn) in living organisms, and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in rocks and minerals, to name just a few." Plants also absorb CO2 which means that it helps cool the earth. The biosphere is the region of the surface and atmosphere of the earth or another planet occupied by living organisms. Diagram: - black numbers in the diagram indicate how much carbon is stored in carbon sinks (areas of storage) in billions of tons - arrows show how carbon moves among Earth’s spheres. MLA: Http://Ete.cet.edu/Gcc/?/globaltemp_carbon_cycle/, NASA, ete.cet.edu/gcc/?/globaltemp_carbon_cycle/.
Topic: Carbon storage in ice, ocean, and biosphere Vocab: Permafrost: a thick subsurface layer of soil that remains below freezing point throughout the year, occurring chiefly in polar regions Summary: "Carbon moves through the environment in networks of stored and flows known as the carbon cycle". The carbon cycle on earth is what creates and stores carbon on earth. Permafrost is a huge store of carbon. Glacial melting due to the warming of the planet releases the huge amounts of carbon trapped inside for thousands of years called permafrost. Plants take carbon dioxide and turn it into something they need via photosynthesis, this means plants are a natural coolant to the earth. The earth getting warmer overall is good for plants because that means a faster rate of photosynthesis and growing season so its all good right? WRONG! This is because which those are accelerated there are things such as drought, famine, overall less precipitation, forest fires and more, all killing plants more than the heat is helping. There is a huge increase of carbon in the earth because the ocean absorbs carbon from the atmosphere. This has damaged ecosystems, killed many animals and made the ocean more acidic as a whole. MLA: Codrington, Stephen. Our Changing Planet. 1st ed., Solid Star Press Sydney, 2017.
Topic: Water storage in ice, oceans and changing sea level Vocab: The Svalbard Global Seed Vault: a secure seed bank on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen near Longyearbyen in the remote Arctic Svalbard archipelago. This was meant to preserve a wide variety of plant seeds that are duplicate samples, or "spare" copies, of seeds held in gene banks worldwide. Summary: A part of the Polar Seeds project to raise awareness and help climate change from more damage it can cause to the earth. This infographic shows possible dangers coming to places like Greenland and the United States and gives many great statistics and facts about the future of rising sea levels. The creator of this infographic wrote "Scientific research indicates sea levels worldwide have been rising at a rate of 0.4 inches (3.5 mm) per year since the 1990's. The trend linked to global warming puts thousands of coastal cities, like Venice Italy and even whole islands at risk of being claimed by the ocean." Raising Sea levels many throughout the world but create explicit concern for island countries because when sea levels rise, they lose a good portion of there overall land. MLA Citation - Golosiy. “Rising Sea Levels.” Visual.ly, 4 Mar. 2013, visual.ly/community/infographic/geography/rising-sea-levels.
Topic: Water storage in ice, oceans and changing sea level Vocab: Crevasse: a deep open crack, especially one in a glacier. Repercussions: an unintended consequence of an event or action, especially an unwelcome one. Summary: This is a diagram showing the steps in which glaciers melt and retreat through increasing heat to our planet and rays from the sun. After the ice is melted it explains that "pooled water drains through crevasses and moulins, breaking up ice and lubricating the glacier base" which is a very crucial part of this process. This gives us a lot of context about how glaciers break down and eventually totally melt. When glaciers melt there are many repercussions of global climate change with the most prominent being raising sea levels worldwide. MLA Citation - Denver Museum of Nature & Science. Pinimg.com, i.pinimg.com/originals/4b/32/9a/4b329ac5aef58c89f361059895fd5837.jpg.
Topic: Water storage in ice, oceans and changing sea level Vocab: Ice Sheet: a Large span of ice otherwise called Ice caps that commonly originate in the Arctic or Antarctic. Summary: Water covers 71% of the earth, 97% of this is salt water and 0.3% is freshwater. This makes drinkable water a scarcity for humans in most parts of the world. As the earth gets warmer glaciers and polar ice sheets melt more and more. There is a lot of concern about the Greenland ice sheet and the Antarctic ice sheet melting. The more rapid increase in climate change is due to Anthropogenic climate change. This is human activities that affect nature which includes, industrialization, farming, cattle raising and more. Quote: "Rises in sea level due to global warming result mostly from the thermal expansion of ocean water. When the temperature of water rises, it expands, and it is believed that recorded rises in sea level have resulted more from thermal expansion of the ocean's water than from melting ice." (162) MLA: Codrington, Stephen. Our Changing Planet. 1st ed., Solid Star Press Sydney, 2017.