Mao Zedong - China Although initially the Chinese Communist Party and the Kuomintang worked alongside each other to eliminate the control of warlords over China, by 1927 Chiang Kai-Shek became worried about the CCP's increasing power and in 1927 he ordered the purge of members of the party. In the following years Mao's party engaged in a number of conflicts with the GMD such as the peasant uprising in Hunan and the attack on the Jiangxi Soviet in 1934. The latter resulted in the Long March, during which the CCP relocated its bases to Yan'an province. Only a small fraction of the CCP survived the march due to the terrible conditions including hunger, disease, and harassment from GMD and warlords. Later on the Japanese invasion also intervened with Mao's rise to power. It can therefore be argued that Mao rose to power under the least favorable conditions. The source is an educational video that aims to educate the public on the key events of the Chinese Civil War, making specific references to Mao's struggles to rise to power. The sources used to create the video are textbooks and official documents therefore the source can be deemed as factually accurate and credible. The video however is quite short and only touches on the most important events without going in depth on the specific conditions under which Mao emerged thus one needs to carry out further research in order to investigate his rise to power.
Adolf Hitler - Germany Adolf Hitler is mostly known for the systematic murder of millions of Jewish people, but Nazi propaganda also targeted homosexuals, gypsies, physically disabled people, Poles. Hitler’s treatment of minorities was fueled by his ideology that aimed to create an ethnically pure Germany. His foreign expansion was also influenced by his beliefs in social-Darwinism. Hitler had the most drastic impact on minorities because the treatment of certain groups affected people not just in Germany, but in other European nations too - for example in Italy, Hungary, Austria etc. Source is a website that contains translated quotes from Hitler's Mein Kamps regarding his views on Jewish people. The excerpts make it clear that Hitler held a personal hatred against the Jewish and his anti-Semitic views were deeply rooted in his ideology from as early as 1925. The source however is limited in a sense that it only provides information on the Jewish minority but not other groups (such as Slavs, homosexuals, disabled etc.). Moreover the source provides information on Hitler's motives for his treatment of minorities but not the actual outcome and effects of his policies.
Benito Mussolini - Italy Italian Jewish people were deeply integrated into society and therefore the Italian Fascism did not focus on anti-Semitism until 1938 when in part because of German pressure, some restrictions were imposed on the Jewish minority. Roundups of Italian Jewish people started in 1943 however they were only partially successful as the Italian authorities warned the Jewish people previously, and the non-Jewish citizens refused to participate or help the roundups. Thus it can be deduced that Mussolini had the least impact on minorities as he did not personally hold an agenda against Jewish people, and the Italian public opinion did not support the severe treatment of minorities. The source is an article from the Holocaust Encyclopedia on the website of the United States Holocaust Museum. The origin of the source gives it high credibility as it from an American website, and not an Italian one, thus one can assume it is objective. Another value of the source is that is breaks down the ways Italian Jews were treated chronologically and supported by factual evidence in order as its purpose is to educate the public on the impact Italian policies had on the Jewish minority, thus the information can be used to analyze Mussolini's impact on the Jewish minority group. The limitation of the source is that a large amount of the content found in the article is irrelevant as it deals with the course of the war and not the treatment of minority groups.
Mao Zedong - China Mao (who came to power as the leader of the People’s Republic of China in 1949) adapted a multiparty system in the early stages of establishing control so that intellectuals and not just peasants were attracted to the the Chinese Communist Party, thus ending the decades of political instability that characterized China prior to Mao’s leadership. Later on through the use of force Mao ensured that all opposition was eliminated. These methods included re-education campaigns, public humiliation sessions, labor camps etc. that effectively removed any political opposition that could be a possible threat to Mao’s rule. Thus it can be deemed that Mao successfully achieved political stability and secured his own position as the one and only leader of China. The photograph shows the public humiliation of a politician who Mao believed was a threat to his control. The image is valuable because it shows how effective these struggle sessions were - the man is clearly broken by the treatment he is receiving from the masses. The source however has the limitation that the picture was taken in 1966. Although struggle sessions were a crucial methods Mao used to get rid of political opposition, this particular photograph can be deemed irrelevant seeing that it was taken years after Mao had secured power.
Benito Mussolini - Italy Mussolini failed to achieve full dictatorship over Italy as his control over the country could not have been established without the support of the Catholic Church. In the Lateran Treaty of 1929 the papacy the papacy recognized the state of Italy, with Rome as its capital. Italy in return recognized the sovereignty of the Vatican City under the control of the Catholic Church. Moreover Mussolini also failed to establish total dictatorial control as the Monarchy remained independent of the Fascist Party and continued to be in control of the commander-in-chief of the Armed Force. Also, although Mussolini was the leader of the Fascist party, he had to seek the approval of the Fascist Grand Council. The source is the translated transcript of the Lateran Treaty. The main value of the source is that one can learn exactly what was agrees upon between the Catholic Church and Mussolini, and thus understand how it was crucial for Mussolini to have the support of the papacy. In Article 3 it is stated that Italy handed over full control over the Vatican to the chruch, thus confirming that Mussolini failed to establish control over the whole of Italy.
Mao Zedong - China Mao’s domestic policies and his demands for agricultural production led to famine in the rural areas as peasants struggled to meet the irrational quotas and produce enough to provide for themselves. The Great Leap Forward that aimed to develop the industrial production, however the outcome was low quality steel production and the neglect of agricultural production. The Chinese peasants were starving yet they were forced to perform extremely hard manual labor which eventually led to the death of millions. Mao's failed domestic policies clearly outweigh his successful policies due to the tragic outcomes that affected the vast majority of China's population. The photograph shows a typical Chinese family under Mao's rule. The father weeps while the children are looking at their dying mother. The source is valuable as it shows the effects of the Great Leap Forward on the average Chinese peasants (who made up 80% of the country's demographics) and thus clearly demonstrates how unsuccessful Mao's domestic policies were in terms of impact on the Chinese people. The source is limited however because only four people can be seen on the photo. Although it is well known that Mao's domestic policies had a universal effect on most Chinese peasants, this source is limited to one family thus it does not provide information on the other millions of people and the policies' impact on their lives.
Saddam Hussein - Iraq Saddam Hussein industrialized the Iraqi oil industry in 1972. In addition in October 1973, the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries or the OAPEC proclaimed an oil embargo in response to the U.S. decision to re-supply the Israeli military during the Yom Kippur war. As a result oil prices rose by 400% and Iraq made an immense profit. Hussein used the income to develop a social welfare state in Iraq and develop its infrastructure. The positive outcomes of his policies included improvements the healthcare and educational systems, rising literacy levels, and better access to electricity and water in rural areas. The source is a diagram displaying oil production of Iraq taken from the website energyinsights.net . The main value of the source is that it clearly shows the increase of oil production starting to from the early 1970s when Hussein industrialized the oil industry. In addition the source is valuable because it's origin is an international website thus it can be assumed that the source is objective. The main limitation of the source is that the reliability of the diagram is ambiguous. The website does not make a reference to the data used to construct the diagram therefore one cannot be certain that the information is credible. Moreover the source only provides information on the increase of oil production and not the explicit successful economic and social outcomes of Hussein's industrialization of oil.
Mao Zedong - China Most Chinese were fanatically loyal to Mao, especially the youth who grew up under his regime and would even denounce their own family members during the Cultural Revolution. Mao’s propaganda was spread through posters, radio, TV etc. Every Chinese citizen had to carry a copy of his Red book around at all times. Cheap radios were given to those who could not afford it otherwise so propaganda could be spread to each and every Chinese household. Even major failures and mistakes of his were credited as someone else’s fault, and the majority of the youth was completely devoted to him. The source is a propaganda poster urging the Chinese to read Mao's Red Book as often as possible. The text translates to "don't wait, read Chairman Mao's words of great wisdom." The source is valuable because it is primary evidence of the efficient use of propaganda to manipulate the masses as it is known that all Chinese people had a copy of the Red Book that they carried with themselves at all times. The limitation of the source is that the image is taken from Wikispace which is not a reliable or credible website. It is possible that the text is therefore not translated accurately or that the image was edited.
Adolf Hitler - Germany Hitler had the most favorable conditions for rise to power as he was able to take advantage of both the struggling economy and the overall anger of the Germans who felt betrayed by the previously government. Germany’s economy was crippled after the Treaty of Versailles and further worsened by the Great Depression (1929). Germans lost faith in the Weimar Republic and thus the Nazi party’s radical views gained support. Germany’s national pride was also affected by the post war settlements, especially the clauses regarding their military and the loss of land. Hitler took advantage of the universal national discontent and promised to end unemployment and rebuild national pride through aggressive foreign expansion in the East that aimed to create a German empire called the Third Reich. The source is a diagram displaying the relationship between unemployment rates and votes for the Nazi Party between 1924-1932. The source is valuable because it shows how the party had negligible support during the Stresemann era, however the percentage of votes show a massive increase after the Wall Street Crash, thus it is evident that support for Hitler's party is in correlation with unemployment rates. The limitation of the source is that it does not take into account other factors besides economic. There were numerous causes that allowed for Hitler to take power in Germany, such as the economic and social impact of the Treaty of Versailles. The information on the chart is limited to the 8 years prior to Hitler's appointment as Chancellor of Germany.