Deforestation is an effect of farming, mining, logging and other human’s activities, which affects many forests around the world, including the temperate rainforest. In Australia, less than 3 percent of the original temperate rainforest remains. Human activities contribute to habitat loss and fragmentation in the temperate rainforests. By losing their natural habitats, some species become threaten and can migrate to other areas, affecting the balance of local populations. The pollution of large urban centres has also affected the remaining temperate rainforests. Domestic and industrial pollution contaminates water sources, contributing to the ecological unbalance between species in the food chain.
Eastern Australia is one of the world’s 11 deforestation hotspots that together will account for 80% of global forest loss by 2030. About 70% of the eastern forests of Australia have already been cleared or disturbed, with just 18% of the area under any sort of protection. New South Wales government is set to amend land-clearing protections, despite pledging $100m to protect the state’s threatened plants and animals. Australia’s forestry loss has primarily been caused by land clearing for livestock, with unsustainable logging and mining also blamed for tree falling.
Forest loss has halved over the past 30 years according to the 2015 Global Forest Resources Assessment, released yesterday. Forests are a big deal. They provide us with clean water, they sequester and store carbon, they provide timber and non-timber forest products, and are vital to the everyday survival of many of the world’s poorest people, who live in and around forests. Every five years, the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations produces results from its Global Forest Resources Assessment.
Most of Australia's forests are in the coastal regions with much of the rest of the continent covered by deserts and dry land. The Australian coastal regions are the most fertile, and since colonial times, the coastal forests were cleared mostly for agricultural use. Loss of biodiversity in Australia is of catastrophic proportions. Many bird species have been lost in Victoria, Queensland, New South Wales, Western Australia and the Mount Lofty Ranges in South Australia.
The forests and woodlands of eastern Australia comprise the six WWF terrestrial ecoregions within the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland. One of the symbols of Australia, the koala, although not confined to this front, was recently listed vulnerable to extinction due to deforestation in Queensland and NSW and consequent fragmentation. Deforestation in the northern ecoregions is a substantial contributor of sediment pollution affecting the Great Barrier Reef. Soil surface rainfall runoff is shown to increase between 40% and 100% due to deforestation in this area.