Eclipses happen because the moon seems to be the same size as the sun and covers it up, that is bc the sun is 400 times farther from the sun and the sun is 400 times larger than the moon.
A diamond ring effect is caused by the moon and the moon isnt perfect for all those craters that has. The moment when baileys bead appear in the total eclipse and last for just few seconds, The diamond ring effect only last for a few seconds too, either the moon completely blocks out the sun during a totality, or just when the sun emerges from behind the moon making the diamond affect appear.
Solar eclipses is when the Moon moves between Sun and Earth, blocking out the sun rays and makes a shadow on parts of earth. Solar eclipse dont show all over on earth because the earth is always moving and the moon too. There's 4 types of solar eclipses, which are Partial solar eclipses, Annual solar eclipse, total solar eclipse, and hybrid solar eclipse.