1. In this image, a Jewish man in Berlin wears a yellow Star of David on his clothing. This practice was commonplace and enforced by the Nazis during WWII and the Holocaust. This was a time where Jews were highly discriminated against in Nazi Germany. The Star of David made Jewish people instantly recognizable to others, branding them with a star of stigma. What was once a religious symbol now was a marker to others that the Jews were different, and they were inferior. The Star made targeting Jews easier. During Kristallnacht, or "The Night of Broken Glass", Jewish businesses were targeted, their windows were broken, and people would no longer go their. The combination of the Star and the broken windows was a signal to other people that they were Jewish, and so they were inferior. People treated the Jewish with disrespect, and later on into the Holocaust, Jews were rounded up and mass murdered, just because they were different. 2. To connect this to the historical fiction novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, we can see that the "othering" happening in this picture is quite similar to the "othering" that African Americans experience in the book. Both instances of inferiority and difference are caused by racial issues. For the Jewish people during WWII, the marker that made them instantly different was the Star sewn on to all of their clothing. But for African Americans during this time, the marker was with them since birth: Their skin color. Just the color of one's skin determined if they were inferior, stupid, smart, and a multitude of other stereotypes. In TKAM, there are a couple instances where Tom Robinson's character is defined by his skin color. "Tom's death was typical. Typical of a n*gger to cut and run. Typical of a n*gger's mentality to have no plan, no thought for the future, just run blind first chance he saw" (Lee 322). This was also much the case for the Jewish people. The Star of David told people that they were Jewish, and that they were inferior, and everything they did was because they were a Jew.
1. In this poem by Langston Hughes, the struggles of being a biracial person during the times before civil rights laws are chronicled. It talks about how the narrator's father was white, but their mother was black. The last stanza shows the parallels of wealth and race, saying "My old man died in a fine big house / My ma died in a shack" (Lines 9-10). His white father had a better life than his mother, who was most likely poor all her life due to her racial standings. Because of their inter-racial relationship, their child was born biracial in a time where being black was considered not right. In the last stanza of the poem, Hughes writes "I wonder where I'm going to die / Being neither white nor black?" (11-12). Because the narrator is biracial, no one really respects him because they are black (white people do not like the speaker) and white (black people do not like the speaker). They probably cannot buy a house or find anyplace to settle down because he does not belong anywhere, so to speak. The narrator is in the middle of the heated racial battle between African Americans and whites in that time in American history. 2.Connecting this to To Kill a Mockingbird, there are a few examples in the novel where biracial people are mentioned. When Jem and Scout are talking about Mr. Dolphus Raymond's ways, they see some biracial children of his. Jem thinks they are saddening, and he says "They don't belong anywhere. Colored folks won't have 'em because they're half white; white folks won't have 'em 'cause they're colored, so they're just in-betweens, don't belong anywhere" (215). This holds truth, because they have both characteristics of the "other" to both whites and blacks, so no one takes them. They are left in the middle.
1. Shortly after the Pearl Harbor attack on December 7, 1941, action was taken by the United States government to place Japanese Americans living on the west coast in internment camps. The Japanese were placed in these camps because they were affiliated with the enemy. Most Japanese American people had no ties to the attack, but they were still placed in camps just for the fear of it. And of all the Axis enemies that the U.S had after being dragged into war by the Japanese, like Italian Americans and German Americans, only a couple thousand of them were locked up. Over 100,000 Japanese Americans were placed in camps. The start of WWII was not the only time that the Japanese had been "othered". The article states that "While they represented a tiny portion of the population, Japanese Americans on the West Coast had long been special targets of white hostility". Even before the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese were seen as others and were discriminated against. Japanese immigrants were segregated against on the west coast. They could not own land, eat at the same restaurants as white people, or become naturalized citizens. Americans feared and disrespected them before the attack because they were different, and feared them after the attack because they were connected to the enemy. 2. Connecting this to To Kill a Mockingbird, African Americans were othered because they were different. Much like the Japanese looked different, the pigmentation of their skin in contrast to people of Caucasian decent was much different. The Japanese people were relocated for fear that they could help Hirohito (The Japanese emperor at the time) infiltrate American soil. African Americans in To Kill a Mockingbird also lived apart from others. When Tom Robinson is being heard from in the trial, he shows how far away from the white community and the center of town his house is. Atticus recollects where his house is, saying, "'You say you had to pass the Ewell place to get to and from work. Is there any other way to go?'" (225). The Ewells live on the outskirts of town, and Tom has to pass their place to get to work. In the book, there was a black community and a white community, and Tom is part of the black community. Due to racial segregation laws, African Americans were also poorer than most white folks, because lots of job opportunities were not open to them. This being the case, lots of African Americans lived in poorer places, farther away from white people, much like the Japanese on the west coast during wartime.
1. Genocides are typically caused by people who are against those who are different, whether they are scared of them, think them inferior, or just hate them. Notable genocides include the Holocaust, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Moriori Genocide. All of these genocides occurred because one group of people were different than another group of people. The Hutus and Tutsi peoples were likely one people in the past, the Bantu. There was no differentiation between the two groups until German and Belgian imperialists arrived. The article states that "The Europeans divided the two groups mostly by economic status, with Tutsis being wealthier (the ownership of ten cattle being the base requirement)". However, if a Hutu became wealthy, they could upgrade their status to that of a Tutsi. For many years, the Tutsi were the upper class in Rwanda, often enacting hostility towards the Hutus. But in the 1990s, a revolt began against the Tutsis. The Hutus people slaughtered the Tutsis, often with machetes because ammunition was very expensive. Hundreds of thousands of people were killed, with numbers sometimes reaching the million mark. 2. Connecting this to TKAM, there is often social inequality based on financial status, although it is not as severe as the dichotomous situation of the Tutsi and Hutu. Bob Ewell is one of the poorest people in town, and he lives on the outskirts of town. He is white, but he is labled as "white trash" due to his financial situation. He is a drunk, who beats his daughter. He does not add anything to society, and he takes welfare checks from the government. But he drinks his welfare checks away, and does not use it to his advantage. His living conditions reflect his financial status. Scout narrates, "Its windows were merely open spaces in the walls, which in the summertime were covered with greasy strips of cheesecloth to keep out the varmints that feasted on Maycomb's refuse" (225). They don't even have windows, unlike most other people in town. They are on a whole other level than Atticus or even the Radleys. He and his family are "othered" because of their financial situation, which contrasts much of the town's.