n The Resurrection of Female Ghosts from Classical Chinese Opera and the Hollywood Tradition in Cantonese Cinema, Kenny K. K. Ng talks about the way the Chinese government treats ghost films and how films containing such spirits are viewed by the public. Kenny begins his article by explaining how the government takes ghost films and fantasy films by saying that “with the advent of film censorship administered by cultural bureaucrats in 1930s Shanghai, Chinese horror cinema was made anathema to the government because it was claimed to be spreading superstitions and feudalistic beliefs.” He continues by saying that “along with the martial arts genre that exhibited superhuman powers, ghost films were deemed a kind of ‘fantastic play’, thereby threatening the goal of nation-building because they were unscientific and counter-progressive.” He continues to explain the impact that these films have in the entertainment industry and examines some of these films along the way. Kenny K. K. Ng has studied at the City University of Hong Kong which is among the top 10 higher education institutions in Asia. Apart from this, the website is copyrighted and has a team to write and edit the articles so that they give proper information.
In this article, Lauren Mack explains that “Tomb Sweeping is a one-day Chinese holiday that has been celebrated in China for centuries”, she also explains that “the day is meant to commemorate and pay respect to a person’s ancestors.” Furthermore, Mack that this holiday “is held 107 days after the start of winter and is celebrated on April 4 or April 5, depending on the Lunar calendar.” She also retells the story of the origin of Tomb Sweeping Day and how it “is based on the Hanshi Festival”, which is no longer celebrated to day and “has gradually been absorbed into Tomb Sweeping Day Festivities.” She also describes that “Tomb Sweeping Day is celebrated with families reuniting and traveling to their ancestors’ gravesites to pay their respects.” She also describes how the people clean the graves. During her explanation of the cleaning process, she adds that “some people wear a willow twig to keep ghosts away.” Lauren Mack is a freelance journalist who has written contributed in various US magazines including, Newsweek International, HFN, and various newspapers such as Chicago Tribune and The Palm Beach Post. Her work has also appeared in various Chinese magazines like Time Out and City Weekend Beijing. She has also earned a M.S degree from the Graduate School of Journalism at Columbia University. Her knowledge in journalism makes her works credible as she knows how to the research and articulate articles.
In “Hungry Ghost Festival: Paying tribute to ancestors by burning paper” by Stella Ko and Georgia McCafferty, some light on the tradition is shed. Ko and McCafferty start this article by saying that the Hungry Ghost Festival is “a month-long ancient tradition that pays respect to the spirits of the dead [and] is celebrated across many parts of Chinese Asia on the seventh month of the lunar calendar”. While they proceed to tell us further about the tradition, they turn to Calvin Wong, a university professor, to tell them more about the tradition and ask him questions about the events that take place. They pose questions like “What's the meaning of this festival? What traditions are usually practiced? What's your earliest memory?” to which he answers “The first reason [we celebrate this festival] is to pay respect to the ancestors and another reason is to provide charity for wandering spirits. I guess I've been doing this since I was a child, 5 to 6 years old. I used to do this with my grandparents. They passed away 10 years ago. There are lots of interesting memories about the Hungry Ghost Festival. For example, I remember going to see lots of Chinese operas and they usually serve free congee [a type of rice porridge] and fruit as charity. And my parents used to buy candies for me.” CNN is one of the most popular news outlet today and their website is copyrighted. They have used Calvin Wong’s first-hand experience with the tradition to get to know the Festival better.
Geni Raitisoja talks to us about the role of female ghosts in Chinese literary tradition. She begins by quoting Dr. Judith Zeitlin, the author of The Phantom Heroine: Ghosts and Gender in Seventeenth-century Chinese Literature. She continues on and quotes, ‘‘the return of a ghost is always an anomaly and signifies that something is wrong. The reasons range from a bad death, whether it be by suicide, murder or execution, and any kind of unfair death, which in the Chinese case, brings in gender, because a woman who dies unmarried is by definition, an unsettled spirit that has been wronged.” She continues to quote Dr. Zeitlin’s book by saying, “An unmarried woman doesn't have a place. She belongs neither to her father's family nor does she have a marital family. She has no kin, no descendants to make posthumous sacrifices to her. So, yes, she is problematic. The ghost story is usually about solving a problem, that which caused the ghost to return in the first place. In the case of women, it's often giving them what they were deprived of in their lifetime.” She continues to explain the role of female ghosts through quoting Dr. Zeitlin’s book. This article can be seen as credible, as it references Dr. Judith Zeitlin’s book, Phantom Heroine: Ghosts and Gender in Seventeenth-century Chinese Literature. Dr. Judith Zeitlin is a professor of Chinese Literature at the University of Chicago. This article is mostly based on quotes and ideas from the book. Although there no other references made, the book that Raitisoja quotes is credible due to Dr. Zeitlin’s experience and knowledge in Chinese literature.
In this article, posted on Sixth Tone, Chris K. K. Tan talks about the reasons why ghost weddings still occur in China. He starts of by mentioning several criminal cases which involved the police getting arrested, he tells us that “back in October 2014, the South China Morning Post reported a bizarre and necromantic crime: Police in eastern China’s Shandong province arrested, and eventually sentenced, 11 men for raiding women’s graves and selling the corpses to people seeking yinhun, or ghost marriages.” This gives us an insight on how it affects the society and the government. He also gives us an ancient example of a ghost marriage, he says that “the most famous example of ghost marriage is probably that of Cao Chong”, who was only 13 years old when he passed away, according to a third-century historical text. He also lets us know that “many Chinese apparently believed that the souls of the dead still had the same social needs as the living, even though they resided in the underworld.” Furthermore he also states his opinion by saying that “the recent spate of grave robberies is almost exacerbated by China’s current neoliberal economic model.” Chris K. K. Tan is an associate professor of Anthropology at Shandong University. I think his experience with Anthropology might help him with analyzing these cultural events and explain how it affects the development of the people.
Although ghost weddings was not something included in the article above, it plays a big role in China and people’s lives. In this article published on BBC news, Grace Tsoi begins the article by explaining that “believers in the custom, practised for some 3,000 years, say it ensures the unmarried dead are not alone in the afterlife.” After explaining this she proceeds to shed light on the way these weddings have changed over time. She states that “originally, the weddings were strictly for the dead... but in recent times some have involved one living person being married to a corpse”. Tsoi is a writer for BBC News, which is one of the arms of the biggest broadcasting news gatherer in the world. BBC News is copyrighted and have teams of journalists to write each article.
Emily Mark provides an expansive article about ghosts in Ancient China. She starts by saying that, “Ghost stories were the earliest form of literature in ancient China.” She proceeds to explain the importance of proper burials and the different parts of a soul to the rituals of Ghost month. She explains to her audience that there are two specific parts of a soul, one is hun and the other po. She explains that “the po was the yin aspect of the soul associated with darkness, water and earth.” and that “the hun was the yang aspect of the soul associated with light, fire and the heavens. She also explains several types of ghosts. One of which is called the nu gui which is “the spirit of a woman who was abused in life and, usually, murdered. While proceeding to explain the celebration of Ghost month, she ends her article by stating that “ghosts are thought to be attracted to lanterns and will follow them back home to the afterlife. When the lantern goes out, it is a sign that the ghost following it has reached the other side and is at peace.” Mark studied history and philosophy at Tianjin University in China and English at SUNY New Paltz, NY. Her living in China has built up her experience and knowledge on different aspects of the country. Her studying philosophy might also play an important role in her article as she might be able to distinguish the meaning of these ghosts and the impact it has in people’s lives .This source is also credible because she links several articles to other sources like the Cambridge University Press and Stanford University Press, both of which come from top schools from the world