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They are farm families from the Southern Plains who migrated to California. They are mainly the ones who were the poorest. They are workers who were forced to leave. They worked in agriculture during the depression. People would make fun of them and call them Okies.Many independent farmers lost their farms when banks came to collect on their notes, while tenant farmers were turned out when economic pressure was brought to bear on large landholders. The attempts of these displaced agricultural workers to find other work were met with frustration due to a 30 percent unemployment rate.
Communism was a dead end, but we can reclaim socialism. The early Communist movement never rejected this broad premise. It was born out of a sense of betrayal by the more moderate left-wing parties of the Second International, the alliance of socialist and labor parties from 20 countries that formed in Paris in 1889. One hundred years after Lenin’s sealed train arrived at Finland Station and set into motion the events that led to Stalin’s gulags, the idea that we should return to this history for inspiration might sound absurd. But there was good reason that the Bolsheviks once called themselves “social democrats.”
During the Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted approximately a decade, shantytowns appeared across the U.S. as unemployed people were evicted from their homes. As the Depression worsened in the 1930s, causing severe hardships for millions of Americans, many looked to the federal government for assistance. They were constructed of cardboard, tar paper, glass, lumber, tin and whatever other materials people could salvage. Unemployed masons used cast-off stone and bricks and in some cases built structures that stood 20 feet high.
For many years, public-sector unions have been subsidized by dues paid by nonunion employees who had no choice about whether to fork over their hard-earned money. Now, this practice – and the survival of labor unions as we know them – is rightly in question as the U.S. Supreme Court reviews cases. The union and its supporters are using what is often called the free-rider rationale: that nonmembers should not get to enjoy the “benefits” of the union’s representational efforts without paying full dues. However, employees cannot be considered to be getting a “free ride” when the union is advocating a political position they oppose.
These were Shanty Towns during the Depression were called Hoovervilles. They were called that because the people blamed President Hoover. This where families went when they couldn’t afford their homes. It didn’t matter if you were rich or poor.
Those who deny climate change receive a lot of attention, but the vast majority of Americans acknowledge the reality of the problem. Nearly two-thirds of respondents told Gallup last year that they are worried about global warming—the highest figure since 2008.To help keep you current on developments, we’re expanding our environmental coverage across publishing platforms. We’ll have deeply reported magazine stories, brought to life with exceptional photography, graphics, and maps.
In Cape Town, South Africa, they're calling it "Day Zero" -- the day when the taps run dry. They had a 3 year drought. They're recycling bath water to help flush toilets. They're being told to limit showers to 90 seconds. Hand sanitizer, once somewhat of an afterthought, is now a big seller.
"It is quite unbelievable that a majority of people do not seem to care and are sending all of us headlong towards Day Zero," a statement from the mayor's office said. "We can no longer ask people to stop wasting water. We must force them."
According to a report by the Pew Research Center, more than 1.5 million hourly workers in the United States earn the federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. More than three-quarters of them are over age 20 (Pew Research Center, 2014). A full-time worker making the federal minimum wage earns $15,080 per year — an annual income that sits below the federal poverty level of $16,020 for a family of two.
That's a hardship for the families living on such meager incomes. But it should also be of concern to the field of psychology, says Laura Smith, PhD, of Teachers College, Columbia University.