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The Hellenistic Age is a period in history defined as the time between the death of Alexander the Great and the rise of Roman domination. During the Hellenistic Age, many advances in philosophy, science, literature, and art were made. Libraries in places such as Alexandria and Pergamon helped to make these advances possible.
Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism in the ancient world that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture. It began to decline in the second century CE, possibly due to the growth of Christianity. The Jewish work of the Septuagint, the Koine Greek translation of the Hebrew bible, was created during this time.
The New Testament book of Acts notes that "The Hellenic influence pervaded everything, and even in the very strongholds of Judaism it modified the organization of the state, the laws, and public affairs, art, science, and industry, affecting even the ordinary things of life and the common associations of the people"
Palestine was conquered by Alexander the Great in 322 BCE, making Israel part of the Hellenistic world. After Alexander's death, Ptolemy I took over Egypt and the surrounding areas, whereas Selucius took over the area near the Levant. Palestine traded hands between the two rulers, until it came under exclusive Ptolemaic rule in 301 BCE. However, little is known about Jewish life except that priestly aristocracy continued.
The Seleucid king Antiochus III was able to conquer Palestine in 201 BCE, and he then allowed the Jewish people to live by their own ancestral laws. During this time is also when the Maccabean Revolt took place, a critical point in Jewish history.
The Hellenistic Period is from the death of Alexander the Great, 323 BCE, to the conquest of Hellenic territories by Rome, 31 BCE. Hellenic, or Greek culture and political influence throughout the mapped areas from the wake of Alexander's empire.