Jason M. Schlude of the College of Saint Benedict and Saint John’s University produced this account of Herod's defeat of Hycranus (the last Hasmonian ruler). Highlights include Octavian taking charge of the Rome's East. Herod feared that Octavian would appoint Hycranus king instead and subsequently had Hycranus murdered so that he could grip the throne.
The historical background of the New Testament and its times must be viewed in conjunction with Jewish history contemporary to the period. Jesus' Crucifixion, therefore, is pertinent to the Herodian Dynasty in that it was Herod Antipas (r. 4 BCE - 39 CE) who had John the Baptist beheaded and treated Jesus with contempt at Jesus’ trial before him, before sending him back to Pontius Pilate, the Roman procurator at the time of Jesus’ Crucifixion. Similarly, it was Herod Agrippa I (r. 41 - 44 CE) who had James, the brother of John (and one of Jesus' disciples), killed and fellow disciple Peter arrested; and the last of the Herods, Agrippa II (r. 48 - 53 CE), welcomed the procurator who replaced Felix for the trial of disciple Paul.
This 10th century illuminated manuscript depicts "Slaughter of the Innocents," an event in which all young male children of Bethlehem were executed so that Herod the Great could avoid the loss of his throne to a newborn King of the Jews (Jesus) whose birth had been announced to him by the Magi.
This article from Grace Bible Church of San Marcos summarizes the Herods (Roman rulers who served as provincial governors of Palestine and surrounding regions) mentioned in the New Testament, including Herod the Great, Antipas, Agrippa, and Agrippa II. A family tree of Herod is also present at the bottom of the article.