But during the surge "temperatures outdoors - and indoors - rose up to 300ºC [570ºF] and more, enough to kill hundreds of people in a fraction of a second," said Mastrolorenzo.
"Our results show that exposure to at least 250C [482F] hot surges at a distance of 10 kilometres from the vent was sufficient to cause instant death, even if people were sheltered within buildings." Nick Squires.
"instantly fell down dead; suffocated, as I conjecture, by some gross and noxious vapour, having always had a weak throat, which was often inflamed." Pliny The Younger.
"They concluded that the volcano, some six miles (ten kilometers) from Pompeii, produced six different pyroclastic surges—fast-moving, ground-hugging waves of hot, toxic gases and ash." Volcanologist Giuseppe Mastrolorenzo and colleagues began by analyzing layers of buried volcanic ash and rock.