When the reconstruction was just in planning mode the were different groups that wanted to treat the south differently. Some were more harsh so they got the name radical republicans. After Lincoln was assassination Andrew Jackson became president and wanted to treat the south harsh but for some reason didn't support the Radical Republicans. South didn't like that they had lost and the end of slavery so they passed laws called black codes. These laws would limit the rights the African Americans have so congress passed the Civil War Acts which gave the federal government power to be involved in state affairs to protect African Americans. The next act to be passed was the reconstruction act which made the South into military district and demanded the southern states to ban slaver, write a new constitution and ratify the fourteenth amendment. Many southerns resisted the the Reconstruction and the African Americans in the south were kept from voting and having a voice in the southern politics. When you look at this source to the last everything goes down hill after Lincoln dies so maybe if he hadn't died would the Reconstruction era had gone a different way.
After the civil war there were three amendments put in place that would impact the culture of the United States. First was the thirteenth amendment which abolished slavery to this day. Next was the Fourteenth amendment which stated that anyone born or naturalized in the United States are American citizens which included African Americans. Last was the fifteenth amendment prohibits any government from denying a citizen the right to vote based on their race or color. Just one month after the civil war ended President Abraham Lincoln was killed and this change a lot for the African Americans. Lincoln's death was a the extending period for racism, segregation, discrimination and a fight for eqaul rights. Since Lincoln wasn't there to guide the United Sates through the reconstitution the United States had to take action into their own hands.