Probably the most important and the most innovative invention of it's time, Roman concrete was a masterpiece. In fact, according to http://www.ancient.eu/Roman_Engineering/, "Rome underwent a period called a “Concrete Revolution”, which saw rapid represented advances in the composition of concrete. For example, Roman builders discovered that adding crushed terracotta to the mortar created a strong hydraulic mixture which could be used as waterproof material for cisterns or other constructions exposed to the weather. " The Romans used this concrete to also build underwater, an option that was almost impossible until then. This opened up many more possibilities, and also made normal building much easier to construct. To prove even more that Roman concrete is an amazing invention, studies have shown that Roman concrete is vastly superior to even the concrete available today! It binds better, and doesn't crack. While the cement of today will start to degrade in seawater after 50 years, the Roman concrete is still here today after 2,000 years. Roman concrete was definitely one of the best inventions of all time.
The first Aqueduct in Rome was made in 312 B.C.E, and while it wasn't the first one to ever be made, it had a lot of new additions that made them more efficient. According to http://www.ancient.eu/Roman_Engineering/," Roman aqueducts used gravity, not pumps, with a slight downward inclination for the water to flow. Other innovations included the use of arcades to transport water over valleys and low-lying terrain, with the extensive use of concrete and waterproof cement linings. Another innovation was the use of settling tanks at regular intervals to regulate the water supply. " These aqueducts could be as large as 100 kilometers long, and by the time the Roman empire was in it's heyday, there was a large number of aqueducts that weaved throughout the entire area and provided fresh water.
Virgil, one of Roman's best poets, was born in 70 B.C.E, and was born in a normal house. The Aeneid, one of his most famous and complex poems, tells the story of a Trojan hero. According to http://www.notablebiographies.com/Tu-We/Virgil.html, "An epic poem of about ten thousand lines and divided into twelve books, it tells of the efforts of the Trojan hero, Aeneas, to find a new homeland for himself and his small band of followers, from the time he escapes from burning Troy until he founds Lavinium (in Italy), the parent town of Rome." The Aeneid was such hard work to be completed, and even Virgil said that, "I have undertaken a task so difficult that I think I must have been mentally ill to have begun it." He died in 19 B.C.E and his writing was published in 17 B.C.E, even though he requested that it was burned.
This beautiful bridge was built somewhere around in the middle the the first century C.E. and was made by many a Roman engineer. The bridge was made by fitting very precise large stone bricks in a very intricate pattern, and these blocks can weigh as much as 6 tons. The bridge itself, at it's highest point, was 360 meters high! This massive structure is 50 kilometers long and was used as a bridge right until the 18th century, or the 1700's. This means that the bridge was used for almost 1,600 years!
The House of Vetti used to be one of the most beautiful and complicated buildings of its time, and was located in Pompeii. Luckily, for those that love its art, it was saved from the natural disasters from around 27 B.C.E and is still preserved to this day. Nearly all houses in this building are lined with beautiful pictures of stories. One of the most famous parts of this building is the Ixion room, where it is known for its showing of Ixion's suffering. This is a great example of the arts that Romans were capable of showing to the world, and we are lucky to still have it around today.
These beautiful tiles, which can be of either just simple patterns or a picture, are a great example of Roman art. These tiles can be used as bases for counter tops, decorations, or entire floors! While these mosaics were absolutely stunning, they also held a more practical use. The mosaics could keep houses cooler, as they were ceramic, and would make it easier to clean the house. These stunning slabs of Roman art are a practical way to have art in any ancient Roman home. They don't seem to have been in a specific part of Rome, nor do they seem to have been made by a specific person.