The author of this article, Hayley Wood, believes that confederation was beneficial to Prince Edward Island. First, Wood explains the federal government’s role in funding Prince Edward Island’s (P.E.I) healthcare system, social assistance, employment insurance, and etc., and that, without confederation, Prince Edward Island would not have access to the funds of a federal government. Next, the author mentions the Confederation bridge that connects P.E.I to the rest of Canada. Without confederation, this bridge might not have had the need to be built, and P.E.I would lose the connection to the rest of Canada. Finally, the author illustrates the negative repercussions not joining confederation would have had on P.E.I’s economy. In the 19th century, P.E.I’s economy was thriving due to a prosperous ship building economy. This source of income and employment however, no longer exists, and this lack of income would have seriously hurt P.E.I. The author of this article is biased in that she is a resident of P.E.I, so she doesn’t take into consideration perspectives outside that of P.E.I’s. The claims in this article are typically reinforced by solid facts, making them quite solid. This article also explores a few points that would not be obvious to those who reside outside of P.E.I. It does provide an interesting perspective, however it is a bit bare on material, and is therefore an interesting source but not necessarily the most informative.
This excerpt from the book, Canadian Identity: a Francophone Perspective explores the effects of confederation on French Canadian Identity, and Canadian Identity. The author does not explicitly state his position on whether Confederation had positive or negative impacts on French Culture, however he does give reasons for both, and ultimately leaves this conclusion up to the reader. First, the author, Dr. Robert Magosci explains how identity is a belief, and that society is what it interprets itself to be, and this notion of developing your own identity is prominent throughout the excerpt. Dr. Magosci believes that in the period shortly following confederation, Canada was marked as binational, and the British North America Act was a compact between French-Canadians and English-Canadians, and that this formal recognition of the importance of French Canadians in confederation lead to a strong French-Canadian identity. He then points out that French-Canadian identity has significantly weakened over time for several reasons, the first of which being the loss of influence by the Catholic Church. Dr. Magosci explains the importance the Catholic Church had on the lifestyle and identity of French Canadians, and the suffering of French Canadian Identity has once the Catholic Church held less power upon affairs such as schools and hospitals. Furthermore, Dr. Magosci highlights what he claims to be opposing visions of French Identity: “National Affirmation of a majority community in Quebec’s, and affirmation of the individual rights of Francophones living as minorities throughout Canada.” (Magosci, 325), and that this division further weakened French Identity. Dr. Magosci also claims that this weakened identity can be heavily attributed to Urbanisation. As a result of urbanisation, French-Canadians began working in anglophone settings, sending their children to bilingual schools. In addition, Dr. Magosci states that english is often more desirable simply due to the demands of the labour market. It is then explained that while many French-Canadians see bilingualism as an advantage, there are still dangers of assimilation associated with it, often resulting in loss of language. This article was not written by a french person, and is unbiased, and statements are typically reinforced by primary source documents, or even tertiary sources. In addition, many statements are paraphrased from experts. The excerpt is quite long, however offers a unique perspective on not only French Canadian identity, but any sort of identity, and is therefore a good read.
This article explains the “unreconciled” relationship between indigenous and non-indigenous peoples in Canada. First, the author contends that following Confederation, all economic productivity had by Indigenous peoples was seriously constricted. Next, it is explained that indigenous lands became integral to the formation of the country, however indigenous peoples were not. Furthermore, the author explains the superiority the settlers saw in themselves over indigenous peoples, and this is what lead to the creation of the Indian act- an act set to assimilate Indigenous Peoples into European molds. This act also seriously disenfranchised the Indigenous Peoples, and frequently the only way for them to become enfranchised was to forfeit indigenous status. The author then states that the Indian Act is the only piece of colonial legislation that still exists today with the purpose of assimilating a specific population, and that this act is one of the most significant reasons for our discourteous relationship. The author does, however, acknowledge efforts made by governments towards reconciliation, but explains that reconciliation isn’t merely something to be given, however a process rooted in indigenous beliefs and tradition, and the path to reconciliation begins with understand the needs, and beliefs of Indigenous peoples. While there are hints of bias towards indigenous peoples, the author of this article is relatively unbiased and asserts factual information, with the exception of opinions. While the author was not indigenous, this article is still interesting to read, and is quite eye-opening in terms of trying to understand the wrongs committed to indigenous peoples, and how to right them.