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These series of wars severely weakened China, leading to the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912. Citizen loses trust in the imperial government and started the Xinhai Revolution on October 10, 1911. Emperor Puyi of China was forced to abdicate on February 12, 1912, marking the end of China's 2000 years of dynastic rule. Following that, the Republic of China was established.
Resistance continued into the early 1900s and the Eight-Nation Alliance was established. It consists Britain, United States, Russian Empire (1721-1917), German Empire (1871-1918), France (1870-1940), Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867-1918), Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946), and Empire of Japan (1868-1947). They continued to fight against China in response to the Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901).
In 1858, prior to the end of the Second Opium War, China was forced to sign the Treaty of Tianjin which forced China to legalise trade of opium and ceded Kowloon to Britain as part of Hong Kong.
In 1842, after the British victory of the First Opium War, China was forced to sign the Treaty of Nanking, with Hong Kong island being ceded to Britain. The Chinese later called this "unequal treaties".
This picture shows the leaders from the Eight Nation Alliance, including Queen Victoria (1819-1901), "slicing" China into pieces and dividing them amongst themselves.
In 1839, England declared war on China because it was upset that the Chinese government refused to legalise the trade of opium.
Opium Wars are two armed conflicts in China in the mid-19th century between the forces of Western countries (especially England) and of the Qing dynasty, which ruled China from 1644 to 1912.
Back in 17th century, when India was still part of the British Empire, the British grew opium in India then came to trade with China for silk, porcelain, and tea. The Chinese then became addicted to opium, creating trade imbalance. In 1839, the Daoguang Emperor of China refused to legalise the trade of opium, so the British declared war on China.
Fought between 1856 and 1860, the Second Opium War led to the further opening of China to foreign influence and contributed to the spread of imperialism. It was led by Britain, France, and the United States.