The Sioux recognized four powers higher than the universe, Buffalo was very prominent. Bears are symbolically important to the Sioux, being regarded as curative. The last two are warfare and super-naturalism which were very closely connected. The Sioux were much more successful in covering land once horses were introduced. They were also on good terms with neighboring tribes to trade with them,usually for grown food.
Women were skilled at porcupine quill and bead embroidery, provided bison hide, but mostly focusing on fertility, healing and overall well being of their tribe. While men focused on community policing, and overseeing buffalo hunts. Men usually gained their status by doing brave or courageous deeds in warfare.
The Sioux have always hunted buffalo, they're very important and used throughout daily life providing tools, food, and shelter. They never farmed for their food, instead gathered their fruits and vegetables that were already grown in the forest or traded by neighboring tribes. Dogs were very important and did things like helped carry back gathered fruit and veggies the gathered collected by pulling travois. Dogs were also trained to be Watch dogs in case of invasion, before they discovered horses. Once horses were introduced, they became much more powerful and were able to cover, conquer and control much more land. Stealing a horse was a very popular way to become instantly wealthy, and warrior like, since the Sioux were a tribe of warriors, it was very honorable to steal a horse.
The Cheyenne used many different hunting techniques as well as tools as the types of animals they could hunt changed from large to small. One of the changes in the tools was making the head of the spears they used for hunting smaller. They also used rivers for farming and as water sources.
The relationships with other tribes was not great. Especially with the Kiowa, as they had conflict for a very long time. Believed that the Earth was controlled by the four spirits at each point of the compass and the God who lived beneath the ground.
Religion was very important to the Sioux. In times of need it is what they consulted. The Sioux believed they were created by “grandfather” Wakan Tanka and derived inside of the Pana Sava cave. The Sioux relied on religion to cure their souls. In times of need they would go into sweat lodges for means of purifying. Religion to the Sioux was a lot of the time based off of the nomadic bison hunting lifestyle. For example they had the Sun Dance; This was an event where the people would sacrifice their bodies and eat buffalo herds after the winter when many were together. On top of this the young men would go on vision quests to get closer with Wakan and hopefully be told insight on the buffalo’s path.
Kinship was the foundation of their society. They were split into 10 major groups that were governed by one central government. no hereditary social classes. four types of social organization: the vestoz (a camp), the manhastoz (a bunch), the notxestoz (military society), and the manhao(a sacred band)
The Cheyenne religion was based on two main god-like figures. They were The Wise one Above and the God who lived beneath the ground. There were also four spirits that were said to live at the four points of the compass, north, east, south, and west. The people also believed in a Sun Dance that they would perform often and very elaborately. Also the people would have visions of a guardian spirit adopting and giving special powers to someone if they had followed the proper rules and practices. There were also two sacred objects that were stored in a sacred bundle. The two objects were a hat made of buffalo skin and hair and four arrows, two for hunting and two for battle.
The term Sioux refers to seven different intertwined native american groups. These groups were divided by different language dialects and each were a part of the Seven Council of Fires. The largest subgroup of the Sioux were the Lakotas. Each subdivision of Sioux had a small group lead by a head man (tiyospaye), civil leaders (nacas), and police (akitas). The civil leaders had a council for each of the seven divisions and a “national” council as well for when all of the divisions met.
The women gathered wild plants mainly wild rice. The men hunted buffalo. There was a large fur trade. They made basketry. They made tools out of animal bones. Like most economies during the time it was agriculture based.
Before moving to the Dakotas and Minnesota the Sioux lived around Lake Superior. Here they gathered rice, fished the lake from canoes and hunted deer and buffalo. Due to prolonged war the Sioux were driven to the Dakotas and Southern Minnesota. Here their crops shifted from wild rice to corn. Since the Seven Councils of Fire were further divided by this move they were forced to maintain their ties through intermarriage, trade, religious ceremonies, communal hunting and military alliances.
In the Cheyenne society there were 10 major groups that were all governed by one governmental council. The council was made up of 44 chiefs as well as seven military groups, the most powerful and influential of the military groups was the Dog Soldiers. Along with the 10 major groups of people there were smaller societies based on dance, or medicine. These groups had a choice of whether to be made up of all men or all women but could not be made up of both. The Cheyenne people also had a lot of conflicts with the Kiowa and were constantly fighting with them.