Almost every single human being living in the United States knows what racism is, and has either experienced or seen it first hand. This article by Mia Mercado describes why this thinking process leads into Institutional Racism, something that is affecting the way that many people do their jobs, more specifically, the police. Mercado includes an exact definition of Institutional Racism for those that are unclear about what it truly entails, stating, "Institutional Racism,or Systemic Racism is defined as the pattern of social and political systems discriminating against a group of people based on race." Analyzing the everyday American's thoughts on other races and how the police see each of us, Mercado brings in a new perspective on why police brutality is so common. ***Mercado, Mia. “Proof That Institutional Racism Is Still A Problem.” Bustle, Bustle, 26 Apr. 2018, www.bustle.com/p/this-is-proof-that-institutional-racism-is-still-very-much-a-problem-43610.
Citing a previous source that I included, "The Journal of the National Medical Association" this article describes how structural racism is a large factor in violent police encounters. Samuels describes how structural racism as a whole is a problem that has gripped our nation for decades, and then goes into how this is affecting police brutality statistics. Bringing structural racism to the forefront of an argument based around plain old racism allows for a more advanced look at this epidemic occurring more and more frequently in our country. ***Samuels, Michelle. “Police Shootings Reflect Structural Racism | SPH | Boston University.” Boston Hospitality Review RSS, 5 Feb. 2018, www.bu.edu/sph/2018/02/05/police-shootings-reflect-structural-racism/.
This BBC article begins by immediately citing a case that contradicts the entire title of the page. Brown describes the case, and trial in detail, then states, "It is one example of the rare instances where police are arrested or charged for violent incidents related to their police work,". The article continues on to state examples of when police have not been convicted or punished appropriately, and then begins to describe how larger government agencies are a part of this large growing problem facing our nation today. ***Brown, Taylor Kate. “The Cases Where US Police Have Faced Killing Charges.” BBC News, BBC, 8 Apr. 2015, www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-30339943.
This study, published in the Journal of the National Medical Association, provides real evidence about the relationship between race, and police brutality. ***multiple, authors. “The Relationship Between Structural Racism and Black-White Disparities in Fatal Police Shootings at the State Level.” Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, Elsevier, 19 Jan. 2018, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0027968417303206.
In this article, NBC Journalists Safia Samee Ali, and William Sherman provide insight on the exact reasons WHY police officers are usually not convicted when using lethal force. The authors quote Bowling Green State University criminologist Philip Stinson saying, "The legal system doesn't like second guessing police officers because they know the job is hard and violent and they have to keep bad guys off the streets," They also include portions of a study that Stinson initiated, showing conviction rates, as well as victim demographics to show why this is happening, and who it is happening to. All of this evidence helps show how many officers are essentially getting away with murder. ***Ali, Safia Samee, and William Sherman. “Why Officers Often Aren't Convicted for Using Lethal Force.” NBCNews.com, NBCUniversal News Group, 30 July 2016, www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/why-police-officers-often-aren-t-convicted-using-lethal-force-n619961.
In this article written by The Economist, the author discusses how recent cases of police brutality in the Baton Rouge area have caused citizens to retaliate against officers from the same area. Citing recent "Blue Lives Matter" laws, it is also stated how many local governments are passing pieces of legislature to better protect these officers from the violent actions of these citizens. This article does not, however, show what is being done to prevent the exact violent acts that cause such an uprising in our societies. ***The Economy. “Ambushed and Anguished; Policing after Baton Rouge.” Gale Group, 23 July 2016, go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?tabID=T003&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchResultsType=SingleTab&searchType=BasicSearchForm¤tPosition=7&docId=GALE%7CA458950146&docType=Article&sort=Relevance&contentSegment=&prodId=ITOF&contentSet=GALE%7CA458950146&searchId=R4&userGroupName=j084910011&inPS=true.