The case Gitlow v. New York was first brought up in 1919 when Benjamin Gitlow was arrested for criminal anarchy by a New York police officer. This was the first time that the Supreme Court held that the Fourteenth Amendment’s due process clause required by the state and federal governments be held to the same standards in regulating speech. Benjamin Gitlow had been publishing a news paper with statements of over throwing the power of the U.S. government. And on June 25 of 1925 the court issued it ruling written by Justice Edward T. Sanford, and Benjamin Gitlow was convicted.
Brown v. Board of Education was a huge supreme court case of 1954. this is the case that ruled the racial segregation of children in the united states was unconstitutional. A plaintiff named Oliver Brown filed a class-action suit against the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, in 1951, after his daughter was denied entrance to Topeka’s all-white elementary schools. In 1952 this case and 4 other cases like it were all brought together and called the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. Then in 1953 right before the case was heard the chief justice Fred M. Vinson died, and was replaced by Earl Warren, then governor of California, who was appointed by the president. Then on May 17, 1954, Warren wrote that “in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place,” as segregated schools are “inherently unequal.” As a result, the Court ruled that the plaintiffs were being “deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the 14th Amendment.”
A New York State law required public schools to open each day with the Pledge of Allegiance and a nondenominational prayer. This law allowed the kids to leave if they were objective. Later on a parent sued saying that it was violating the establishment clause of the first amendment. It was later stated unconstitutional, because even though the law allowed the kids to leave, the purpose of the first amendment was to prevent the governments interference with religion.
What right were involved in the case? 1.1. The sixth amendment What were the basic facts of the case? 2.1. Gideon was charged with breaking an entering with the intent too commit a misdemeanor which is felony under Florida. At trial, Gideon appeared in court without an attorney. In open court, he asked the judge to counsel for him because he could not afford an attorney. The trial judge denied Gideon’s request because Florida law only permitted appointment of counsel for poor defendants charged with capital offenses. (Gideon vs wainwright “us courts (.gov) > educational-activity’s https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=38&ved=2ahUKEwjSkJuz-83ZAhUM8YMKHXn6BJoQFjAlegQIBhAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.uscourts.gov%2Feducational-resources%2Feducational-activities%2Ffacts-and-case-summary-gideon-v-wainwright&usg=AOvVaw3qfPtzdHbhhvaJTZ-NYhlz) What decision did the Supreme Court reach and why? At trial, Gideon represented himself – he made an opening statement to the jury, cross-examined the prosecution’s witnesses, presented witnesses in his own defense, declined to testify himself, and made arguments emphasizing his innocence. Despite his efforts, the jury found Gideon guilty and he was sentenced to five years imprisonment.(Gideon vs wainwright “us courts (.gov) > educational-activity’s (March 2018)).https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=38&ved=2ahUKEwjSkJuz-83ZAhUM8YMKHXn6BJoQFjAlegQIBhAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.uscourts.gov%2Feducational-resources%2Feducational-activities%2Ffacts-and-case-summary-gideon-v-wainwright&usg=AOvVaw3qfPtzdHbhhvaJTZ-NYhlz) What precedent did the decision set? 4.1. To recognize criminal reconcilement and have fair trial due too all citizens.
What rights were involved in the case? I Amendment What were the basic fact on the case? Students decided too wear black armbands to school representing a truce in the Vietnam war; the staff heard of the idea and made it to were if your seen with an armband you will be asked too take it off. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=44&ved=2ahUKEwj25MuJutTZAhUQ5WMKHYFJBuEQFjAregQICBAB&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.oyez.org%2Fcases%2F1968%2F21&usg=AOvVaw2Ys5iqAvbtLiM3yYgy64o3 What decision did the Supreme Court make and why. The Supreme Court held that the armbands represented pure speech that is entirely separate from the actions or conduct of those participating in it. The Court also held that the students did not lose their First Amendment rights to freedom of speech when they stepped onto school property ( www.ozey.com/cases https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=44&ved=2ahUKEwj25MuJutTZAhUQ5WMKHYFJBuEQFjAregQICBAB&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.oyez.org%2Fcases%2F1968%2F21&usg=AOvVaw2Ys5iqAvbtLiM3yYgy64o3) What president did the decision set? The freedom of speech gives us the chance too express ourselves and our opinions and it is one of our rights.
What rights were involved in the case? Violation of the first amendment What were the basic facts of the case? In what became known as the "Pentagon Papers Case," the Nixon Administration attempted to prevent the New York Times and Washington Post from publishing materials belonging to a classified Defense Department study regarding the history of United States activities in Vietnam. The President argued that prior restraint was necessary to protect national security. This case was decided together with United States v. Washington Post Co. (www.ozey/case.com https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=13&ved=2ahUKEwjLiqSpvdTZAhUFy2MKHW49A-cQFjAMegQICRAB&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.oyez.org%2Fcases%2F1970%2F1873&usg=AOvVaw3VDnM_78Uxy0GCzohROPK8) What decision did the Supreme make and why? It does violate the first amendment Court make and why? In its per curiam opinion the Court held that the government did not overcome the "heavy presumption against" prior restraint of the press in this case. Justices Black and Douglas argued that the vague word "security" should not be used "to abrogate the fundamental law embodied in the First Amendment." Justice Brennan reasoned that since publication would not cause an inevitable, direct, and immediate event imperiling the safety of American forces, prior restraint was unjustified. (https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=13&ved=2ahUKEwjLiqSpvdTZAhUFy2MKHW49A-cQFjAMegQICRAB&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.oyez.org%2Fcases%2F1970%2F1873&usg=AOvVaw3VDnM_78Uxy0GCzohROPK8) What precedent did the decision set? The first amendment does protect our privacy but security shouldn’t be used as a way too hid federal secrets.
What rights were involved in the case? XIV Amendment What were the basic facts of the case? 2.1 Roe, a Texas resident, sought to terminate her pregnancy by abortion. Texas law prohibited abortions except to save the pregnant woman's life. After granting certiorari, the Court heard arguments twice. The first time, Roe's attorney -- Sarah Weddington -- could not locate the constitutional hook of her argument for Justice Potter Stewart. Her opponent -- Jay Floyd -- misfired from the start. Weddington sharpened her constitutional argument in the second round. Her new opponent -- Robert Flowers -- came under strong questioning from Justices Potter Stewart and Thurgood Marshall. ("Roe v. Wade." Oyez, 5 Mar. 2018, www.oyez.org/cases/1971/70-18.) What decision did the Supreme Court reach and why? The Court held that a woman's right to an abortion fell within the right to privacy (recognized in Griswold v. Connecticut) protected by the Fourteenth Amendment. The decision gave a woman total autonomy over the pregnancy during the first trimester and defined different levels of state interest for the second and third trimesters. As a result, the laws of 46 states were affected by the Court's ruling. What precedent did the decision set? Women’s rights and privacy
What rights were involved in the case? II Amendment What were the basic facts of the case? “Alfonzo Lopez, a 12th grade high school student, carried a concealed weapon into his San Antonio, Texas high school. He was charged under Texas law with firearm possession on school premises. The next day, the state charges were dismissed after federal agents charged Lopez with violating a federal criminal statute, the Gun-Free School Zones Act of 1990. The act forbids "any individual knowingly to possess a firearm at a place that [he] knows...is a school zone." Lopez was found guilty following a bench trial and sentenced to six months' imprisonment and two years' supervised release.” ("United States v. Lopez." Oyez, 27 Feb. 2018, www.oyez.org/cases/1994/93-1260.) What decision did the Supreme Court reach and why? “The possession of a gun in a local school zone is not an economic activity that might, through repetition elsewhere, have a substantial effect on interstate commerce. The law is a criminal statute that has nothing to do with "commerce" or any sort of economic activity.” ("United States v. Lopez." Oyez, 27 Feb. 2018, www.oyez.org/cases/1994/93-1260.) What precedent did the decision set? The current standing on the gun policy in accordance with public schools and other affiliated businesses/public properties.
What rights were involved in the case? XIV Amendment, II Amendment, and Due Process Clause What were the basic facts of the case? “Several suits were filed against Chicago and Oak Park in Illinois challenging their gun bans after the Supreme Court issued its opinion in District of Columbia v. Heller. In that case, the Supreme Court held that a District of Columbia handgun ban violated the Second Amendment. There, the Court reasoned that the law in question was enacted under the authority of the federal government and, thus, the Second Amendment was applicable. Here, plaintiffs argued that the Second Amendment should also apply to the states. The district court dismissed the suits. On appeal, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit affirmed.” ("McDonald v. Chicago." Oyez, 27 Feb. 2018, www.oyez.org/cases/2009/08-1521.) What decision did the Supreme Court reach and why? “The Supreme Court reversed the Seventh Circuit, holding that the Fourteenth Amendment makes the Second Amendment right to keep and bear arms for the purpose of self-defense applicable to the states.” ("McDonald v. Chicago." Oyez, 27 Feb. 2018, www.oyez.org/cases/2009/08-1521.) What precedent did the decision set? The use of gun rights according to the XIV and II Amendments.