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They traded and shared with many of their neighboring tribes, and they acted civil towards each other when doing so. They all depended on each other for different goods and services which pushed them to maintain good relationships with other tribes. Puebloans had many ideas about the world and the land, for example they believed that if they did ceremonies it would cause the land to be more fertile when they were farming.
Puebloans were a group known as the basket makers, they had great skill when basketmaking. They adapted to their land by mostly replacing hunting with farming, they also used the baskets they were great at making in order to harvest those foods that were farmed. They learned how to make pottery, and created the bow and arrow which was a much more accurate weapon than the spear, helping them whenever they went hunting. Pueblos built houses that were made of sandstone and other resources around them, these were strong buildings that were made simply with resources by them. They were also farmers, and the land around them was dry and hot so they would collect snow in the winter to later use for watering their crops.
Apache adopted a “nomadic” way of life and revolved around horse transportation, farming, hunting, and trades of horses, guns, food, etc. It was common to be involved in raids with other tribes, like the Pueblos, where they didn’t focus on battle but going through the villages. In the home, women raised children, and made food available with cacti, seeds/planting, gathering firewood, and making clothes, baskets and household needs. Apachean men were the hunters, fighters, and raiders and gave the word of the household. Both men and women engaged in weaving and shepherding.
The Apache tribe began as a hunting and gathering oriented group, but over time, began to settle as an agricultural society. They believed in a settled down way of life, and farmed crops. They took on traditional gender roles. They lived in dispersed groups, and built Hogans. They made decisions from majority rule. Additionally, they believed that all things on Earth had powers, including plants and animals. These beliefs are what pushed them to make sacrifices, and to have ceremonies in hopes to please the gods bringing them better fortune.
The Pueblos were very strategic in making up a home and being a part of their village, as for social life was dependant on the village. Pueblos focused on a more kinship based lifestyle, where social organization was based on “real or putative family ties”. For housing, families went by where the woman’s extended family was to stay and used red clay from the ground to make multi-family buildings, where in the house the woman was in charge of farming, household needs, and cared for certain fetishes (sacred objects in stone). While the man was in charge of agricultural work and hunting. Clans that they were involved in were like corporate groups in the village, and were responsible in organization of events and rituals, and after marriage, the woman would have to be with the clan her husband was involved with. Pueblos activities were limited to the season, trading was in the winter and plants/crops were limited to the summer.
A pueblo is a compact permanent settlement. Each village was governed by a council composed of the heads of religious societies. Traditionally, women did most of the farming but as the need for hunting diminished, men helped as well. The women’s role was childcare, cooking, and pottery. Men wove cloth, herded sheep, and raised crops. The pueblos reckoned kinships maternally.
Apache women were responsible for raising children, gathering and processing seeds and plants, collecting firewood and water, producing clothing, baskets, pottery and building the home as well as tending gardens. Whereas the men fought, hunted, raided, and tended fields. It was customary to interact with both mother and father’s families.
Sometimes men married multiple women. Men moved into the woman’s home once they were married. A bond is 20-30 individuals who lived and worked together. Bonds were organized by a leader who was chosen for his wisdom and success. Individuals would/could move to another group if they were uncomfortable with their current situation of their bond. Children were protected from harm through careful tending. Gender roles started young, girls started to learn food processing and childcare and boys collected firewood and tended animals.
The Pueblo's practiced animism and shamanism. The practice of Animism believed that the world was filled with living-spirit filled entities. Shamanism was centered around shamans, or people who were thought to have special powers by achieving a high level of knowledge. Additionally, they believed that cosmic order was crucial to the world and annual cycles of ceremonies were necessary, or the world would end. The Pueblo’s believed that everything in the Universe was important including plants and animals. Active participation from each person was required in rituals, or the natural order of things would be off. They also believed in Kachinas, which were spirit-beings that would represent the community.
The Apache did not have organized tribes. They were separated into bands, which were each led by a chief. The chiefs were not actually recognized as or referred to as ”chiefs,” but that is the best way to refer to the position that we have. The chief of a band was whoever the strongest person was. This ties in with their cultural focus on fighting ability. Sometimes, one chief would have control over multiple bands.
The Apache’s believed in powerful entities of the Earth, and that these spiritual entities had either good or bad forces. Ceremonies were held with the purpose of curing diseases, or in celebration of the success from hunting or warfare.
Each Pueblo village had its own separate government. The government within each of these groups was a was a village council made up of religious leaders. These people were selected from each clan within a village as representatives. In times when an important decision needed to be made for the tribe as a whole, a tribal council was held, with one representative chosen from each village. The image is a kiva, which was the meeting room for the council.