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The Apache believed that there were spirits all around them that could help or punish each individual human being. The spirits were believed to cure anything from diseases to help find more food for the family.
The Pueblo Indians built homes made of limestone and adobe brick. In their traditional homes, there the dwelling would be centered around a garden. These living areas are known as pueblos. Ancestral Pueblos moved to the south and east to develop new housing.
Both sheep and sheepherding were major contributors to the Pueblos. These techniques were important for the Pueblo agricultural economy to thrive. The Pueblos were skilled farmers who grew crops including: corn, wheat, beans, and squash. Hunting and gathering was a big part of Pueblo economy.
Apache tribes believed that there were invisible spirits that were surrounding them at all times. Spirits could be found in all parts of live and all living things. The Apache people took frequent baths in order to wash away evil spirits. They also believed that their ancestors could be seen in all parts of life from rocks and trees to wind. The Apache would pray to these objects and ask for guidance, help, or advice. The Apache also believed that the Earth's creator was called Ussen and he created the earth in four days.
The Apache were organized without a central government. Rather, the tribe consisted of bands - smaller groups of tribe members, organized by location. There was a chief (which is not determined by heredity) that could lead over several bands. The chief was not very official in that he did not have absolute power over the band. Additionally, there was no singular leader for the entire tribe - again confirming that there was no strong central government. Initially, the Apache were split into eastern and western groups.
Ideas about farming and tradition carried widely between different Pueblo communities. Farming was less valued in Western Pueblo societies, while in the East, along the Rio Grande, people heavily valued crops like cotton and corn.
Women were primarily responsible for farming while men tended to hunt. There were areas where only men were allowed to congregate called Kivas that also housed political meetings. Both women and men were allowed to be religious leaders in Pueblo societies. Kinship is a very important social structure in Pueblo Societies. People who share a common ancestor were part of a clan.
Women were highly respected in the Apache community and often served as community and family leaders. Extended families would live nearby and but each nuclear family had their own home. The extended family would come together in order to for a “local group” which carried out ceremonies and rituals. Local groups would form together in order to create bands. The chief of each group was was at the top of the social hierarchy. Women were tasked with raising children, gathering seeds for their family, and getting water and firewood. They also made clothing for the family and helped to make the home. Men fought and hunted for food. Both men and women tended the gardens and herded animals.
Initially, the Apache were mobile and hunter-gatherers. There was some farming, but the Apache were best known for their raids. Only men would raid; women would stay at home and gather things like food and water. Many tribesmen had “wickiups” which were essentially straw huts. Others had buffalo hide tepees. Because both were so easy to set up it helped the Apache adapt to their dry climate and their nomadic lifestyle.
Pueblo people believed that animals, weather, plants, and other aspects of nature were encompassed in spirits. They worshiped these through elaborate ceremonies. These spirits, called Kachinas, were worshipped annually, sometimes through dance, and each had very distinct characteristics. They also believed in Shamans, men and women who acted as intermediaries between the spiritual and physical worlds.
There were 70 Pueblo villages, each one governed separately. Each village was lead by a group of religious leaders. The leaders in these groups would gather in circular or rectangular chambers called Kivas that often had murals on the walls.
The Apache tribe eventually moved to the southwest and practiced subsistence farming (self-sufficient). This method included hunting and gathering, farming and trading and raiding. The different tribes within the Apache practiced different types of farming. For example, the Jicarilla farmed and hunted bison while the Lipan shifted towards a more nomadic (or mobile) way of life. The Apache initially attempted to befriend the Spanish, Mexicans and Americans, despite their famous aggressiveness. However, they began to raid the Spanish which may have later started the Pueblo Revolution.