In 2008 Otis McDonald and other filed a suit to the U.S. district court about a Chicago dealing with gun control. They wanted to change a law that banned the new registration of handguns and made registration hard for an already owned handgun. The law generally prohibited the carry of a firearm but allowed for rifles or shotguns to held in homes or businesses for home defense . The suits said the law went against the second amendment rights we have as citizens. The supreme court ruled that the second amendment rights were incorporated from the 14th amendments due clause.
In march 1992 a senior at a high school in Antonio Texas brought a hand gun to school. School officials then confronted Lopez after receiving a tip. He was charged and was sentenced to six months in prison. Lopez attorneys argued that the government was overstepping its grounds to regulate these laws. The governments reasoning was that schools fall under the commerce clause which the federal government regulates. The supreme court found this to be un just and Lopez was released.
This is the first case where the supreme could recognized abortion as a constitutional right. The case began in 1970. Norma McCurvy took federal action against Henry Wade. The courts refused to recognize ms. McCurvys right to terminate a pregnancy. The supreme court decided that to put regulations on abortion was unconstitutional if they place an undue burden on a woman. In the end McCurvy opposed abortions but it became a right anyways.
This case regards the Wisconsin school attendance laws and how it interfered with the Amish practice of religion. This case involves three Amish fathers Jonas Yoder, Wallace Miller, and Adin Yutzy. All three of them refused to send their children that where ages 14-15 to any grade past 8th. Wisconsin required kids to go to school until the age of 16. The fathers broke that law and where arrested and found guilty. The supreme court found that this contradicted the free exercise of religion provision in the first amendment.
This case became known as the " Pentagon Papers Case". What happened was the Nixon administration attempted to block the New York Times and Washington Post from publishing classified materials from the United States activities during the Vietnam War. The president tried to use the argument that it couldn't be published because of national security. It was decided that the New York Times ans Washington Post could publish them because of the first amendment.
It all started when students at a high-school in started a silent protest against the Vietnam war by wearing armbands. The principal retaliated and said that if you wore an armband you would get suspended. Some students then got suspended and their parents sued the schools. They sued saying that them getting getting suspended violates their first amendment right and that the armbands don't disrupt learning. The supreme court ruling favored the students stating "Students don't shed their constitutional rights at the school house gates."
Gideon was charged with breaking and entering with intent to commit a misdo miner which is a felony in the state of Florida. In court he was denied the right to an attorney because he was not charged with a capital offence. Gedion represented him self and ultimately lost and was sentenced to five years. He petitioned for writ of habeas corpus in the Florida supreme court and it was denied. He then petitioned to the U.S. supreme court because he said him not having legal council made him lose and he won that argument.
The new York state law required a pledge of allegiance and a nondenominational prayer. Did this violate the establishment clause. The ruling decided that yes it did violate the establishment clause. It was argued that just allowing the students to opt out was not enough and did not protect it. It was brought up that many Americans care very deeply about their religion so the law was deemed unconstitutional.
The district court originally ruled in favor of the school boards. The plaintiffs then appealed to the Supreme court in 1952. when the cases came before the court they were five cases all concerning public school segregation. They put all five together and named it " Brown v. Board of Education". It was argued that that separation of white and black students was inherently unequal and violated the equal protection clause. It was also argued that the separate schooling made black children feel inferior to and more unequipped that white children. This conclusion was drawn from a series of sociological tests conducted by Kennith Clark. Rather than decide on a verdict immediately they reheard the case in December 1953 and ruled in favor of the plaintiffs for desegregation of public schools.
Gitlow v. New York is a case in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment protection of free speech also applied to state governments. It was the first decision in which the supreme court used the fourteenth amendments do process clause. Which required state and national governments to be held to the same criterion in regards to the regulation of free speech. In 1919 Benjamin Gitlow and Alan Larkin were arrested by NYPD for criminal anarchy. They were members of the communist party and publishers of the Revolutionary Age, a radical newspaper. In the newspaper they printed the "left wing manifesto" based of the original communist manifesto. In the LWM it advocated for the violent overthrow of the united states government. Gitlow argued that the was no precipitated violent action in the manifesto. None the less he was convicted. Ironically the freedom of speech safeguards were expanded by the ruling.