McDonald v. Chicago, 561 U.S. 742 (2010), is a decision by the supreme court that found that the right of an individual to "keep and bear arms" as protected by the 2nd amendment is incorporated by the Due Process clause of the 14th amendment against the states.
United States v. Alfonso D. Lopez, Jr., 514 U.S. 549 (1995) Congress has used the commerce clause to to aggressively create legislation governing what seemed to be purely local matters. Here, the court blocks them a bit by holding that the commerce clause of the Constitution doesn't give congress the power to regulate guns near state-operated schools.
Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973), is a landmark decision issued in 1973 by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of the constitutionality of laws that criminalized or restricted access to abortion. In Roe v. Wade they they established national abortion guidelines. It was ruled (7-2) that women's rights to abortion was protected under the Due Process Clause of the 14th amendment.
Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U.S. 205 (1972) This case dealt with the Amish community's desire to pull their children from public school before the age of 16 so that they could help with farm and domestic work. The court sided with the Amish and held that the parents may remove children from public schools for religious reasons. It was declared that the Wisconsin Compulsory School Attendance Law violated the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment.
New York Times Co. v. United States, 403 U.S. 713 (1971) when defense department employee Daniel Ellsburg leaked some confidential files indicating that the war in Vietnam was going poorly, the government sought to prevent the publication of of these "Pentagon Papers" by the New York Times. In this case, the court held that executive efforts to prevent the publication violated the first amendment. for the government to exercise prior restraint, they have to show sufficient evidence that the publication would cause a "grave and irreparable" danger.
Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District (1969), was a decision by the United States Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools. Students in Iowa school were suspended for wearing black armbands to protest the vietnam war and the court ruled that this suspension was unconstitutional. The first amendment, as applied through the 14th amendment didn't permit public schools to punish students for protesting.
Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 U.S. 335 (1963), is a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In it, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that all states are required under the Sixth Amendment to provide an attorney in all cases for those who can't afford one. The 6th amendment's right to council is a fundamental right that is applied via the 14th amendment's due process clause.
Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (1962), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that prohibited state-sponsored prayer in public schools and was ruled to be unconstitutional. Government ran prayer in public school violates the Establishment Clause of the first amendment.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which an unanimous court ruled that the doctrine of "separate but equal" was unconstitutional. This decision overturned the Plessy V. Ferguson case that lead to state-sponsored segregation in 1896.
Gitlow v. New York, 268 U.S. 652 (1925), was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that stated that selective freedom of speech was allowed to state governments. This case created the "Bad Tendency Doctrine" which said that speech can be restricted only if it has a tendency to lead to illegal actions.