Linda Elkins-Tanton describes comets as "icy dirtballs" as they consist of ice and dust particals. In the article, Linda states that, "The heads of most comets seem to have three parts: the nucleus, the coma (from which the tail extends), and a diffuse hydrogen cloud;" and "Cometary tails seem to form when heat from the Sun cracks their crust and lets out volatiles like C, N, O, H. The nucleus is also thought to contain silicates, oxides, and sulfides, all rock-forming materials." As a comet circles around the sun, mass is lost because comets are partly composed of ice. Like humans know, heat causes ice to melt. As comets orbit the sun, they'll slowly melt; thus eventually the comet will no longer exist at a certain period of time later. According to the table provided by Elkin-Tanton , the comet Hyakutake has a orbital period of about 100,000 years. Even if this is the orbital period, comets even with orbital periods this large shouldn't exist because the universe is much older (approximately 4.8 billion years old according to scientists). But comets do exist. And if comets exist, it goes against the age of the universe. If the age of the universe is incorrect, then the entire Big Bang Theory presents incorrect information on the existence of the universe. Comets may seem as insignificant factors in space, but they actually provide evidence against the Big Bang Theory. The source does not provide evidence to support the theory, but it serves to answer my question; is the big bang theory realistic? *** Elkins-Tantaon, Linda T. Asteroids, Meteorites, and Comets, Revised Edition. Facts on File , 2010.
This image of the redshift provides a visual of the redshift occurring in the universe between objects in space. The color expresses differing amounts of volume per capacity or redshift of objects in space(Harvard). In the middle of the image, there is a horizontal line which basically has very few or no objects with redshift located there. This space proves the idea that objects in space are gradually getting further from one another. Also the varying colors which represent the increasing distance shows that all objects are experiencing this change, some more than others. Theorists use this survey to prove the Big Bang Theory because the redshift backs up the idea that the universe is constantly expanding which is expressed in the photo. This image does not discourage the theory of evolution as it is merely an image which serves its purpose, displays redshift of varying levels. *** “2MASS Redshift Survey .” Www.cfa.harvard.edu, Harvard, 2011, www.cfa.harvard.edu/image_archive/2011/52/lores.jpg.
When talking about blue supergiant stars, Fraser stated that, "Blue supergiant stars have extremely high masses, sometimes with dozens of times the mass of the Sun" and "And the temperature of a star is defined by its mass." Thus, if the mass is bigger, the temperature is greater. "Eventually a supergiant runs out of material to continue supporting fusion in its core, and will detonate as a supernova – one of the brightest explosions in the Universe" (Cain). If the universe is 4.8 billion years old, how come blue supergiants, such as Rigel, still exist? Logically, they shouldn't exist as they would have not been able to continue fusion in the core since a long time ago. This article supports the argument against the Big Bang because the time periods don't logically make sense. Although this does not provide evidence for the Big Bang, it questions the timeline of the Big Bang as the physical evidence that's able to be witnessed today does not agree with what theorists believe. *** Cain , Fraser. “Blue Supergiant Star.” Universe Today, 25 Dec. 2015, www.universetoday.com/24590/blue-supergiant-star/.
David Newtons states, "As the average temperature of the universe cooled, at least in some regions, gravitational forces of attraction become greater than kinetic forces of dispersion. In these regions, hydrogen molecules are capable of existence at these cool temperatures, and they become attracted to each other. They begin moving toward each other with increasingly higher speeds. As they do so, gravitational energy is released, raising the temperature of the hydrogen. Eventually the temperature of the hydrogen cloud becomes great enough to permit the onset of fusion reactions. A fusion reaction is a nuclear reaction in which two nuclei join together (fuse) to form one larger nucleus. At this point, a young star forms." Later on, he states, "Once solar-size stars have formed, they begin to convert hydrogen into helium. As they reach the end of their lives, helium burning gives way to carbon burning and oxygen burning, which result in the formation of elements up to iron." In this explanation, the Big Bang Theory is supported as the author provides scientific evidence for the theory. Although this source is meant to support the Big Bang Theory, there are points which question the validity of this argument. "Although the dispersive forces were far greater than the gravitational forces at first, over time particles projected outward by the big bang began to slow down, and dispersive and attractive forces became more balanced" (Rice, ch.3). In physics, it's impossible for an object to stop moving unless there is an opposing force. So what force is acting on the object if there is just two forces ;dispersive and gravitational (according to Rice)? This question along with their numerous theoretical calculations make the theory questionable. *** Newton , David E. Chemistry of Space. Facts on File , 2007, online.infobase.com/Auth/Index?aid=103269&itemid=WE40&articleId=271748.
In the Encyclopedia of Evolution, Stanley Rice conveyed that a finite change of the constants in the world such as in physics or chemistry would cause the absence of life. He mentioned that small changes in chemistry wouldn't allow the parts of the atom to be held together. If gravity was even a little bit off, physics would be completely different and thus the world would operate differently, if at all. Logically, this idea that from chaos, order is brought is completely wrong. When children play in a room, the room will not become more organized, instead it will become more messy. This idea can also apply to the theory since supposedly, the creation of the universe suddenly occurred with a build up of energy or it occurred from a process with no order since there was no creator or person who encouraged this occurrence. So how come there is an insane amount of order in the Universe? The sun is placed in the exact location for livable conditions for humans. If it was too far away, humans would freeze. If too far away, humans would be burned. The living conditions for humans on earth are perfect. Such conditions which may be viewed question the Big Bang Theory. Others may view the Anthropic principle as evidence for the Big Bang as scientific explanations are given to explain these constants. *** Rice , Stanley A. “Anthropic Principle .” Encyclopedia of Evolution, Revised Edition , Facts on File , 2015, pp. 1–496. Infobase, online.infobase.com/Auth/Index?aid=103269&itemid=WE40&articleId=302332.
In this video, the timeline of the Big Bang is described. The universe suddenly expanded into space and the temperature of the universe decreased. Later, protons and neutrons were formed. The neutrons decay into protons when the universe becomes cooler. With pressure after being connected with one another, hydrogen gas becomes stars. And in the future, other objects were formed which eventually leads to the universe as we know it (The Beginning of Everything--The Big Bang). This video strongly presented the Big Bang Theory as it laid out the time for each occurrence and stated what happened physically during then. But, the elephant in the room wasn't addressed; energy. If a student looked at a drawn image, they'd infer someone had to draw the image or some type of energy was put into it to create the image. Applying the same concept, there is an energy which encouraged or led to the Big Bang too. According to the second law of thermodynamics, the sum of all energy must remain the same. So where did the energy come from? Logically, according to physics, the energy cannot appear from nowhere or be created. The video is created to present the Big Bang Theory and convince viewers of it's truth, but at the same time, it points out a major issue in the Big Bang Theory. *** “The Beginning of Everything--The Big Bang .” YouTube, Www.Kurzgesagt.org, 3 Mar. 2014, youtu.be/wNDGgL73ihY.