Heinström, J. & Todd, R.J. (2006). Uncertainty and guidance : school students' feelings, study approaches, and need for help in inquiry projects. In Scan, Vol. 25(3), pp. 29-35. Dr Jannica Heinström and Dr Ross J. Todd's article focuses on research into students' feelings, research processes and requirement of scaffolding in guided inquiry learning projects. The article defines guided inquiry as a clearly structured, heavily monitored and supportive style of teaching that requires targeted interventions of the teacher and Teacher Librarian throughout the knowledge construction process. The article details a research project conducted by the authors, exploring the approaches, study habits, feelings and required amount of scaffolding of a group of 574 middle and high school students in America ranging from Years 6 to 12. The research uncovered strong links to student motivation and study approach techniques impact most significantly on feelings of success and accomplishment following a guided inquiry unit. I have included this resource in my elink collection as it provided critical insights into the steps at which students require the most scaffolding and assistance in the Information Search Process (ISP), as well as information on how this relates to teacher practices and supports that can be put into place to mitigate these difficulties faced by some students. CRAAP Test Rating. Currency: Written in 2006 – therefore not as recent as would be desired, but information on student motivation and difficulties was invaluable and warrants a repeated study. Reliability/Relevance: Content is peer-reviewed and relevant to how guided inquiry is implemented at secondary level. Authority: Credible educator, professor and researcher, with a number of previous articles in the field. Purpose: intended audience is Teacher Librarians, teachers and educational researchers, so highly relevant to my area of study.
Mitchell, P. and Spence, S. (2009). Inquiry into Guided Inquiry. In Access, Vol. 23(4), pp. 5-8. Pru Mitchell and Sue Spence's commentary Inquiry into Guided Inquiry is an insightful look into the Professional Learning requirements of teachers and Teacher Librarians in the 'Digital Education Revolution', with an emphasis on 21st Century teaching and learning practices, in particular Guided Inquiry. Their articles highlights the main Guided Inquiry Frameworks in use in Australian schools; The Information Process (ASLA & ALIA, 1993), Integrated Inquiry (Murdoch, 1998), the 5Es Model (Bybee, 1997) and the 4MAT Model (McCarthy, 2000). The article states the importance of students co-constructing their curriculum and making their own meaning in information search processes. Whilst the article does acknowledge that Guided Inquiry units do take longer, it argues that the pathway to deep learning and independent knowledge construction is not one that can be achieved over a few lessons, but rather over the course of multiple research cycles that build students' skills progressively. The article emphasise the role of teacher and Teacher Librarian as collaborative team teachers of inquiry and information processing skills. The article outlines the following Professional Learning priorities for teachers and Teacher Librarians: whole school planning and strong Teacher Librarian involvement in curriculum integration and inquiry unit creation, Professional Development to continue to hone Teacher Librarian and teacher skills in teaching information literacy and adaptation of teaching practices in the face of curriculum changes. This article was highly relevant to my inquiry question as it had direct links to learning required of teachers and Teacher Librarians to facilitate and implement successful guided inquiry units. CRAAP Test. Currency: Written in 2009 – therefore contains information that is relatively recent, though not as current as would be desired. Reliability/Relevance: Content is co-written by two experts in the field, but is not itself peer-reviewed. Authority: Credible authors are educators, with experience in school libraries. Purpose: intended audience is teachers, Teacher Librarians, school executives.
Todd, R.J. (2007). Guided Inquiry supporting information literacy. In Scan, Vol. 26(2), pp. 28-30. Dr Ross J. Todd's Guided Inquiry supporting information literacy addresses the skills required of Teacher Librarians to support the building of information literacy skills through Guided Inquiry units. The article focuses on specific instructional interventions, which focus on curricular outcomes and the cognitive, educational and behavioural needs of learners when engaging with Guided Inquiry information seeking processes. It stresses the importance of knowledge-based interventions to provide students with the procedural knowledge required to develop deep knowledge and meaningful understanding of their research topic, whilst developing key information literacy skills. The article promotes Guided Inquiry as a process of actively engaging with diverse and conflicting sources of information in order to develop personal perspectives and understanding. Todd argues that Guided Inquiry approaches need to be disciplinary specific, with each teacher and faculty formulating their own unique conception of information literacy and guided inquiry research practices. The article is highly pertinent to my inquiry question as it has a focus on instructional interventions that develop students knowledge construction skills, complex thinking and reasoning, critically analysing information sources and deep learning, are far more critical to student learning and understanding go far beyond simply learning how to access, locate and evaluate information. CRAAP Test. Currency: Written in 2007 – relatively recent information, with instructional strategies still pertinent. Reliability/Relevance: Content is co-written by an expert in the field. Authority: Credible author who is professor of Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS) program at Rutgers University. Purpose: intended audience is teachers, Teacher Librarians, academics, researchers.
Sheerman, A. (2013). There in one : teacher, information specialist, leader. In ACCESS, June 2013, pp. 4-7. Alinda Sheerman's commentary There in one: teacher, information specialist, leader reflects upon the multiple roles required of 21st Century Teacher Librarians, required to be experts in information literacy, inquiry skills across the curriculum, collection management and teaching. The article advocates for authentic learning opportunities, where students are at the centre of their own learning, whilst still having the support of teachers and Teacher Librarians to enable them to construct meaningful questions, navigate conflicting information sources and construct meaning in an area of personal importance. Sheerman stresses the importance that the teacher not be the beacon of all knowledge, but rather an active participant in discovery with the students, therefore partnering with students to provide support and mentorship throughout the information search process. The article highlights action research conducted by Sheerman at her school to assess the Guided Inquiry processes of both teachers and stduents, applying qualitative data of parents, teachers, executives and students. The research resulted in a series of recommendations to the school executive to improve inquiry learning and pedagogy across the secondary school. These recommendations were highly relevant to my inquiry focus as they linked successful Guided Inquiry with collaborative team teaching, professional development to allow for collaboration and teaching between faculties and the Teacher Librarian and action research being carried out at a school level to assess the efficacy of Guided Inquiry frameworks utilised. CRAAP Test. Currency: Written in 2013 – recent information, with studies from Australian secondary schools, so highly relevant. Reliability/Relevance: Content is co-written by an expert in the field, 2012 Teacher Librarian of the Year. Authority: Credible author who is practicing Teacher Librarian with 20 years experience. Purpose: intended audience is teachers, Teacher Librarians, researchers, policy-makers and school executives.
Fourie, I. (2012). Twenty-first century librarians : time for Zones of Intervention and ones of Proximal Development? In Library Hi Tech, Vol. 31(1), pp. 171-181. Ina Fourie's article encourages the merging of Kuhlthau's Zones of Intervention approach to information seeking and literacies through use of emerging ICT. It addresses teacher concern for poor research skills in students and acknowledges the reality of time and energy constraints on Library Information Service (LIS) professionals. The article was particularly useful as it delves deeply into the concept of 'Zones of Intervention'; the stages of the information seeking process (initiation, selection, exploration, formulation, collection, preparation and reflection) and the corresponding emotional state of students during these phases (vague, focussed, increased self-awareness, uncertainty, optimism, confusing, clarity, satisfaction). Interventions for teachers align with the emotional state of students and the specific phase of the research process they are engaged in. Intervention is required when a student cannot continue with the research without great difficulty, therefore needs the guidance of the teacher or LIS professional. Specific interventions are described in detail, including allowing for access to information, support with searching and locating, assistance developing skills to determine relevance and quality of sources and building skills to take information from a number of sources and synthesise into one document. CRAAP Test. Currency: Written in 2012 – therefore contains recent research. Reliability/Relevance: Discusses multiple peer-reviewed research relevant to my primary inquiry question. Authority: Credible educator and researcher, previous written works regarding inquiry learning. Purpose: intended audience is teachers, Teacher Librarians, academics, researchers.
Manitoba Education & Youth. (2003). Chapter 6: Integrated Learning through Inquiry: A Guided Planning Model. In Independent Together: Supporting the Multilevel Learning Community. Manitoba Education and Youth: Winnipeg, CAN. This document was prepared by the Manitoba Government's Education and Youth Department as a guide for teachers implementing guided inquiry units across the curriculum. It is a detailed, step-by-step guide for how to design, establish, implement and reflect upon guided inquiry teaching units. Of particular importance to my inquiry question is the focus on embedding instruction in the context of inquiry and the Guided Planning Model that outlines the stages of inquiry so that teachers can anticipate student need and respond with scaffolding and support and point of need. The resource also acknowledges the dynamic and individualised process of inquiry learning, with information on how to adapt a unit as it is in progress, so that the course can be changed to suit the needs of students or as new or challenging resources emerge or challenges are encountered. In my mind, this article is essential reading for any teacher or Teacher Librarian embarking upon a guided inquiry unit. CRAAP Test. Currency: Written in 2003 – therefore contains information that is somewhat dated. Reliability/Relevance: Content does not have one author, it is a peer-reviewed document composed by multiple education experts at the Manitoba Ministry of Education and Youth. Authority: See previous. Purpose: intended audience is teachers, Teacher Librarians, school executives, so it is eminently readable and supportive of actual teaching practice.
Fitzgerald, L. (2015). Opportunity knocks : The Australian Curriculum and Guided Inquiry. In Access (Online), Vol. 29(2), pp. 4-17. Lee Fitzgerald's article discusses the links between the new Australian Curriculum and Guided Inquiry. It explores the Australian Curriculum's General Capabilities Critical and Creative Thinking Capability, whose four elements directly align with Guided Inquiry Design (GID) processes (Inquiring, exploring and organising information, generating ideas/possibilities/actions, analysing, synthesising, evaluating, reflecting on thinking and processes). Fitzgerald explores how recent studies have found that there has been an inherent lack of a process approach to inquiry learning. The article argues for the use and implementation of an inquiry model to break down inquiry research tasks with steps for students to follow. It stresses the importance of teaching teams working collaboratively to create the unit of work, schedule the required tasks/work, teach the skills required to complete each phase of research and have the capacity to describe what the community of inquiring students are doing at any given point in the process. The article was particularly relevant to my focus question as it summarised the Guided Inquiry Design Framework, the Information Search Process and a number of popular processes that assist students in learning information literacy skills through guided inquiry (Eisenberg's Big6, Gourley's Inquiry Cycle Model, Murdoch's Phases of Inquiry). It provided detailed tables describing each phase of the process, with what students are doing and what teachers are expected to be doing, which provides me with key information on how to structure guided inquiry in the classroom using the Australian Curriculum. CRAAP Test. Currency: Written in 2015 – therefore contains very recent research. Reliability/Relevance: Discusses multiple peer-reviewed research relevant to my primary inquiry question. Authority: Credible professor and researcher, previous written works regarding inquiry learning. Purpose: intended audience is teachers, Teacher Librarians, academics, researchers.
Argelagos, E. and Pifarre, M. (2012). Improving Information Problem Solving skills in Secondary Education through embedded instruction. In Computers in Human Behaviour, Vol. 28(2), pp. 515-526. Esther Argelagos and Manili Pifarre's empirical study investigates the effects of a long-term embedded, structured and supported inquiry learning program, on the development of Information Problem Solving (IPS) skills in secondary students. This study presents quantitative data on students' development of expert searching, research and information literacy skills through participation in a guided instruction unit of work. It provided critical insight into techniques to improve the information literacy and problem solving skills in secondary students through guided inquiry instructional frameworks. The study analysed the effect of long-term (whole-year) structured and scaffolded guided inquiry instruction undertaken by secondary school students. The study found that students who participated in long-term units were able to search more efficiently, with better 'scanning for information' and processing information skills than the control group students (those who did traditional research study). In the view of the researchers conducting the study, the scaffolding provided sto students helped students construct knowledge in a more efficient way than the control group students. This study adds significant weight to the argument for guided instruction that both provides teacher support and allows for students to build independent research skills, with the eventual goal of becoming autonomous learners. CRAAP Test. Currency: Written in 2016 – therefore contains very recent research. Reliability/Relevance: Discusses multiple peer-reviewed, quantitative research, relevant to my primary inquiry question. Authority: Highly regarded authors, experts in the field of information processing. Purpose: intended audience is researchers and academics, therefore a higher degree of knowledge is required to access the information contained within.
Kuhlthau, C.C. and Maniotes, L.K. (2010). Building Guided Inquiry Teams for 21st Century Learner. In School Library Monthly. Vol. XXVI(5). Carol Kuhlthau and Leslie Maniotes' article advocates for the importance of developing guided inquiry teams in implementing teaching programs that address the Information Search Process (ISP). The article cites multiple research papers involving the ISP and outline how to guide students through the inquiry process. The article is highly relevant to my inquiry question as it breaks down how to establish instructional teams to assess learners needs and evolve guided inquiry instruction on a point of need. Critically, it also outlines the five kinds of learning in the inquiry process, allowing for teachers to implement guided inquiry units based on what the ultimate goals of the activity are (teaching curriculum, information literacy building, learning how to learn, literacy competence or social skills). The article provides specific case studies of guided inquiry units in both primary and secondary schools, with detailed information on how the guided inquiry teams were set-up using teachers, the Teacher Librarian and experts (local and international) that could be brought into the team to provide additional experience and expertise when studying specific topics. Taking inventory of skills and knowledge of staff and experts (available locally and online) adds significantly to the inquiry team and facilitates sharing of knowledge, experiences and problem-solving strategies. CRAAP Test Rating. Currency: Written in 2010 – therefore not as recent as would be desired, but information how to construct different subject and stage level teams was invaluable to providing a picture of how guided inquiry can be implemented. Reliability/Relevance: Content contains peer-reviewed research papers and specific information on how guided inquiry is implemented at secondary level. Authority: Highly credible authors, both experts in the field of information literacy, guided inquiry, Australian education and Teacher Librarianship studies. Purpose: intended audience is Teacher Librarians, teachers, executives and educational researchers, therefore highly relevant to my area of study.
Weaver, A. (2011). Information literacy and overcoming expendability with Professor Michael Eisebnerg. In Access, March 2011, pp. 22-26. Anne Weaver's article highlights the need for school-wide change in the view of the Teacher Librarian's role in teaching the information literacy model through guided inquiry units, through programs such as Buffy Hamilton's Media 21 Capstone project and Patricia Carmichael and Dr Rebecca Jones' independent research project. The article advocates for schools to take a whole-school approach to the teaching of information literacy skills, therefore picking one guided inquiry approach to teach with clear steps, before implementing a guided inquiry program at the school. Use of a school-wide model and its specific language will assist students in transfer of information and genuine learning. The article contained a number of key models to consider when implementing a guided inquiry framework, with step-by-step instructions on how to successfully embed research and information literacy skills into guided inquiry units from K-12, making it a highly useful source for a teacher wanting to know how to implement guided inquiry at a school or class level. CRAAP Test. Currency: Written in 2011 – written in last five years, with practicable instructional strategies for the classroom. Reliability/Relevance: Content is written by an actual Teacher Librarian in Queensland, with ample experience and insight into the subject area. Authority: Practicing Teacher Librarian with extensive knowledge and experience in implementing guided inquiry units to teach key information literacy skills. Purpose: intended audience is teachers, Teacher Librarians and school executives.
ALIA, ASLA. (2009). Policy on guided inquiry and the curriculum. The is resource is the joint policy on guided inquiry and the Australian Curriculum of the Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) and Australian School Library Association (ASLA). It advocates for the free flow of information and ideas in order to keep Australia a 'thriving culture, economy and democracy'. The article is relevant to my inquiry question as it focusses on the responsibility of Teacher Librarians in developing collaborative and supportive 21st century learning environments where guided inquiry is being used to foster students' engagement, research skills and an ability to reflect on their learning process to make sense of their world. The policy advocates for direct teacher guided instruction in teaching research and information literacy skills allowing students to learn through social interaction, collaboration and teacher mentorship. The policy states explicitly that guided instruction is carefully planned and involves specifically targeted interventions through close supervision by an instructional team of teachers working in collaboration with the Teacher Librarian. It is an important policy to draw upon when advocating at a school level for time and resource allocation to implement guided inquiry units of work. CRAAP Test. Currency: Policy was adopted in 2009 and is currently in place nationally. Reliability/Relevance: Joint policy of the Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) and the Australian School Library Association (ASLA). Authority: Joint policy by two key Library bodies in Australia. Purpose: intended audience is Teacher Librarians, teachers, executives and policy-makers.
Arnore, M.P., Small, R.V, & Reynolds, R. (2010). Supporting Inquiry by Identifying Gaps in Student Confidence: Development of a Measure of Perceived Competence. In School Libraries Worldwide, Vol. 16(1), pp. 47-60. Marilyn Arnore, Ruth Small and Rebecca Reynolds' research paper highlights the inextricably linked relationship between inquiry-based learning and information literacy. Based on multiple research studies, their article advocate for the importance of guided inquiry to support students as autonomous learners by providing opportunities to regularly engage in independent decision making and develop a skill set allowing them to progressively build the ability to research independently. The article stresses the importance of teachers assessing students' barriers or areas of deficit in research and information literacy skills, as well as intrinsic motivational and psychological issues, to develop students confidence as well as address the human behaviours that may act as a detriment to teaching the information search process to K-12 students. The research document studied students feeling of self-confidence throughout the guided inquiry research process, then used this data to propose specific tactics for teachers to use to address confidence issues and support the building of students' information literacy skills. The research concludes that Teacher Librarians who administer a test to determine their students competence in information literacy skills early in the year and base their inquiry learning projects on this data, will create guided inquiry units that are more responsive to the information literacy needs of their students. This testing will identify students with 'low perceived competence' in the area, allowing for additional scaffolds to be put in place early on in the inquiry process to keep students engaged and empowered to continue their learning journey. CRAAP Test. Currency: Research dated 2010, so is relatively relevant, however depth and breadth of study is still useful for teacher intending on implementing guided inquiry units. Reliability/Relevance: Jointly written/conducted research by three professors at the Syracuse University School of Information Studies. Authority: Researchers have particular focus areas: Arnone in information literacy and education, Small in motivational theories to information literacy instruction and Reynolds' on children's constructivist uses of technology to develop digital literacy. Purpose: intended audience is researchers, academics, psychologists and Teacher Librarians.