The study of mathematics and the sciences, specifically astronomy and physics, often begins with the Ancient Greeks. The ancients' thought that the earth was the center of the universe because that's what Aristotle told them. It wasn't until the Renaissance, when Enlighten thinkers contradicted Aristotle's thoughts and began to believe that the Sun was the center of universe or heliocentric. It was never a popular view, though, because Aristotle's explanation was viewed as the only and absolute answer.
The first law says that an object at rest tends to stay at rest, and an object in motion tends to stay in motion, with the same direction and speed. The objects will stay in its current state unless acted on by an unbalanced force. Some of these forces include: friction, air resistance, and gravity. Newton's First Law is also referred to as the Law of Inertia.
Video on linear motion in physics. Linear motion is a motion along a straight line. The linear motion can be of two types: uniform linear motion with constant velocity or zero acceleration; or non uniform linear motion with changing velocity or non-zero acceleration.
Newton's second law says that when a constant force acts on a massive body, it causes it to accelerate, to change its velocity, at a constant rate. A force applied to an object at rest causes it to accelerate in the direction of the force. The formula we use is force=mass times acceleration; f=ma.
Newton's third law: If an object A exerts a force on object B, then object B must exert a force of equal magnitude and opposite direction back on object. Forces always occur in pairs, and one body cannot exert a force on another without experiencing a force itself. We sometimes refer to this law as action-reaction, where the force exerted is the action and the force experienced as a consequence is the reaction.