1.) The TED Talk, hosted by Jonell Logan emphasizes on how ignorance contributes to one being "othered" and "notions of culture – who it belongs to; who we regard as outsiders; and why there is no singular definition of ownership" (Logan). Jonell highlights an example in her life when a man, regarding black artwork in a museum, said to her, “you must be really excited to see your culture represented here” (Logan). Jonell discusses how she was insulted by the ignorant man because he referred to the black artwork as “your culture” intending that her culture as a black woman is separated from his, even though she grew up in New York with children from all walks of life. In that moment, Jonell confesses that she felt bad for reacting the way she did, however this feeling of being othered due to her race was her most prominent feeling. Instead of ridiculing the man for his misunderstanding on what the artwork was trying to convey, she connected the black artist’s painting that of a white artist’s so that he could see that the cultures were not separate, eliminating the “other.” 2.) As Jonell Logan discusses how otherness is driven by the misconception and separation of cultures among different races, themes throughout To Kill a Mockingbird illustrate similar concepts. When Scout asks Calpurnia why she started to talk like the blacks, Calpurnia replies, "Suppose you and Scout talked colored-folks' talk at home it'd be out of place, wouldn't it? Now what if I talked white-folks' talk at church, and with my neighbors? They'd think I was puttin' on airs to beat Moses (Lee 167). As highlighted in Jonell’s TED Talk, ignorant people group others into cultures based on their race, othering them in society. Scout comes into realization that Calpurnia has to change the way she talks around the Finch household so that she can’t be othered by the white community. Dialect is one way, as illustrated in To Kill a Mockingbird, that Maycomb has been able to other the black community, segregating them from a “white culture” even as the black people grow up alongside the white people and conduct similar daily activities.
1.) The Jamaican-American writer Claude McKay, as shown in the image above, illustrates otherness through his poem “If We Must Die” by describing what it feels like to be a black man surrounded by the wrath of racism and hatred of white men. McKay emphasizes on how he would rather die an honorable man than die being the “other.” To illustrate this, he says, “Though far outnumbered let us show us brave, And for their thousand blows deal one death-blow!” (McKay). Social injustice is the leading cause to singling out otherness in society, whether that goes for a black man against the word of white men. Otherness can make one feel as though they are being, “Hunted and penned in an inglorious spot” (McKay) by society. “If We Must Die” clearly epitomizes how it it feels to be considered the “other” by society, initiating a fight inside those who are being othered. 2.) Otherness illustrated in McKay’s “If We Must Die” compares to that of To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee when he describes how the “other” in society feels singled out in put in a shameful position. To Kill a Mockingbird exemplifies a similar concept when illustrating how Tom Robinson was treated in the courtroom and how he subsequently died in the end fighting for his honor and equality in a fit of anger. As Dill recalls how Tom Robinson was referred to in the courtroom, he says, “That old Mr. Gilmer doin' him thataway, talking so hateful to him—[…] The way that man called him 'boy' all the time an' sneered at him, an' looked around at the jury every time he answered-” (Lee 255). Tom Robinson’s treatment compares to how McKay describes the feeling of being treated like an inferior. Although Tom remains calm, an anger is ignited when he is imprisoned and attempts to run away, illustrating the risk that one will take in order to die for justice and defeat otherness.
1.) Jackie Robinson was a professional baseball player who impacted the Civil Rights Movement during the mid 1900s by addressing racial discrimination in dominantly white major league sports. Robinson, who had battled racism as a poverty-stricken black male, was clearly labeled as the "other" when he, "became the first Major League baseball player to break the color barrier since 1880" (McBirney). When he finally accomplished his goal to make it to the Major Leagues, Robinson discovered that more racism was yet to come when he "...faced discrimination from a few of his own team members, who threatened to sit out of games if he was allowed to play" (McBirney). Through violence and verbal abuse, Robinson remained the only black Major League player, received a great amount of physical and verbal abuse from players in the league and the general public. Robinson, however, did not relinquish everything he had went through to get to that point and continued to do what he loved despite the approval of others, paving the way for so many more black baseball players in the future. The image above illustrates Jackie Robinson playing in the Major League, focusing solely on the sport of baseball rather than the cruelty and racist slurs most likely spit at him. 2.) The otherness illustrated in “How Jackie Robinson Changed Baseball” relates similarly to that of To Kill a Mockingbird when comparing Jackie Robinson to Tom Robinson. When generally overlooking each situation, both men were black, American citizens who were considered the “other” in a specific environment that was predominately white. The difference is that Jackie Robinson’s story takes place on a baseball field while Tom Robinson's takes place in a courtroom. With all odds against them, both men were put in situations where they had to rise above and be the bigger person, even when everyone around them doubted who they were. Atticus, in a way, resembles Jackie Robinson’s coach in the sense that he supported and defended the “other”, the “other” being Tom Robinson. Dill accentuates what he saw in the courtroom and describes, "That old Mr. Gilmer doin' him thataway, talking so hateful to him—[…] The way that man called him 'boy' all the time an' sneered at him, an' looked around at the jury every time he answered-” (Lee 255). Dill notices the bigotry and racism directed towards Tom Robinson who is defenseless in the situation, comparing to Jackie Robinson on the baseball field who was called racial slurs but had to keep his composure because his career was on the line.
1.) Rosa Parks ignited the flame that burned inside the restless black community all across the nation when she refused to give up her seat to a white person on the bus when the bus driver said so. Simply because of the color of her skin, as illustrated in the image above, Parks was, “she was arrested and fined $10. The chain of events triggered by her arrest changed the United States” (“Rosa”). Parks demonstrated the “other” in the situation because she was treated differently than the rest of the passengers on the bus. Events that followed Park’s arrest was the rise of the social justice leaders Martin Luther King Jr. and Ralph Abernathy who organized a bus boycott to send the white people a message that they would not be using their facilities if the black community was not treated with respect. The boycott was successful in Montgomery as well as other major cities in in the United States because “...over 90 percent of the city’s African Americans refused to ride the buses. People walked to work or rode their bikes, and carpools were established to help the elderly. The bus company suffered thousands of dollars in lost revenue” (“Rosa”). Rosa Park’s story illustrates how otherness should be embraced rather than feared, overcoming injustice and social inequality. 2.) Rosa Parks and the black community being “othered” in “Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott” compares to the black community being “othered” in To Kill a Mockingbird when they are treated poorly in the courthouse. When Scout and Jem enter the courthouse, they sit in the segregated black area on the second floor because the white seating is already full. As Scout describes how the black people approach her and Jem, she says, “Four negros rose and gave us their front-row seats” (Lee 219). Without even a second thought, the black people know that the common courtesy was to let the white children have the seats even when they didn’t ask. This relates to how before Parks initiated the bus boycott, black people, who were already “othered” in a crowd of white people, were forced to give up their seat for white people everyday.