In 1915, the German geologist and meteorologist Alfred Wegener was the first who proposed the theory of continental drift. There are two layers of crust, the first being the oceanic layer that is thinner and denser than the continental crust. Crust is constantly being created and destroyed. Fossil records support this theory because someone found similar fossils thought the world. There are 13 oceanic and continental plates that move around on Earth.
Continental drift is when the continents move away or inwards toward each other. Right now Europe is moving around 2cm. every year from the Americas, that is as fast as our nails grow. There are 3 types of plate movement: divergence, convergence, and lateral slipping. Pangaea was breaking into two parts called Laurasia and Gondwanaland. Eduard Suess was an Austrian geologist who first realized that there had once been a land bridge connecting South America, Africa, India, Australia, and Antarctica.
Plate tectonics is the theory that Earth's outer shell is divided into several plates that glide over the mantle. Earthquakes are caused by the plates moving back and forth that also lead to the invention of the Richter scale. This is the modern theory of continental drift that first came around in the 1960's. The driving force to the plate tectonics is the convection in mantle. Many spectacular volcanoes are found along subduction zones, such as the "Ring of Fire" that surrounds the Pacific Ocean.
Pangaea means whole Earth and Europe moves 2cm. away from Earth. Scientists believe all the plates connected together and volcanoes and mountains are caused by the plates moving together pushing upwards. Plate tectonics explains the features and movement of Earth's surface in the present and the past. The strong outer layer of Earth's mantle is called the lithosphere.