Making observations and inferences are the first step of the scientific method. An observation is what you notice using your five senses (sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing.) There are two types of Observations. The first is Qualitative. A qualitative observation is an observation made using your five senses like the color or texture of an object. The other type of observation is quantitative. A quantitative observation is made using measurements. An example of this is the temperature of a substance or the number of objects. After making an observation, you can make an inference. An inference is formed from facts and evidence. The information gathered from making an observation can be used to make your observation. For example, if you know that Tyler Joseph was in his work room making music at 2am (sorry, I'm trash) you can infer that he's working on the new album and the hiatus shouldn't last too much longer. Identifying the problem with observations and inferences, you can form a hypothesis.
A hypothesis is simply a possible solution to a problem. In order to form a hypothesis you must first have a testable question. A hypothesis is typically an 'if/than statement. 'If you drop a hammer on your toe five times than it will cause more damage than if you only dropped it once' is an example of a hypothesis (a fairly painful one to go through with but never the less a hypothesis.) Once you form your hypothesis it is time to test you hypothesis by conducting an experiment.
An experiment is what you do test if your hypothesis is correct. This includes gathering your materials and repeating the experiment to test if it is accurate. You have to have a control variable (the variables that stay the same throughout the whole experiment), a dependent variable (the factor that stays the same but changes as a result of the experiment and is often recorded), and an interdependent variable (the factor that is changed on purpose or what you're testing.
Collecting data is fairly simple. You take the information from your experiment and organize it in a way that's easily understood. There are a few different methods used when collecting data as explained in the super boring video. You can use graphs, charts, and a lot o other things that i can't think of at the moment. Once you collect all of your data you can do the final step the the scientific method: coming to a conclusion.
The conclusion is the summary of an experiment. When forming a conclusion, you must state whether your hypothesis was correct or not. Your conclusion also must include some of the data collected to prove it. Make sure you always test your hypothesis multiple times before making your conclusion.