1. In the article "10 Atrocious Genocides In Human History" by Mike Devlin, various genocidal acts were analyzed and classified in accordance to their overall impact on the world. As one could clearly see, each one of these events did not start overnight, but rather were cases of tensions building between multiple prominent racial or religious groups, or a person using rhetoric to persuade entire nations to slowly build hatred for a single, or sometimes a few groups of people. As stated in the article, "Even the very definition of genocide is contested, but generally speaking, it refers to the intentional destruction of a particular race, ethnicity, religious group, or nationality... reasons as diverse as the acquisition of land and resources, to the demented hatred of a single man" (Devlin 1). These motives lead to heinous acts of killing and discrimination. In every genocide, it seemed that a key component was growing biased and prejudice toward one group of people, as promoted by a leader through propaganda. Genocides are truly horrible acts that begin with intense hatred. Oppression is a factor that may mark the formation of rebellion resulting in genocide. In Rwanda, colonizers had divided the country into two economic classes, the Hutus being the poorer people, and the Tutsis being wealthier. The author went on to state, "For many years, the Tutsi were the prevailing class in Rwanda, enforcing their rule in some cases with great violence against the Hutu people. But in the early 1990s a revolt began, which saw Hutus engaging in the wholesale slaughter of Tutsis" (1). As seen in the Rwandan genocide, oppression against a different group of people lead to a massive genocide that resulted in an estimated death toll from 500,000 to 1,000,000, occurring in a mere 100 days. 2. Although not as violently expressed, there certainly is similar "othering" seen in "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee. This was seen through racism, sexism, and even some religious discrimination. Racism was particularly present throughout the book. Clearly, in the article "10 Atrocious Genocides In Human History", discrimination in many different forms was touched upon. Generally, genocides begin with great amounts of discrimination. During the legal case of Tom Robinson in "To Kill a Mockingbird", the racist habits of many of Maycomb's residents is put in the spotlight. When the jury goes to make a decision on the case, Jem is convinced that they had won the case. As he is acting confident, Reverend Sykes quickly reminds him, "Now don’t you be so confident, Mr. Jem, I ain’t ever seen any jury decide in favor of a colored man over a white man…” (Lee 279). As juries were generally composed of white men, there was a certain amount of biased they had going into cases, which could be seen in the outcome. Much of Maycomb did not like that Atticus was defending Tom to the best of his ability in the first place, and although he lost the case, he did manage to cause the jury to think for a long time, showing progress toward social equality. However, the racism in Maycomb is still quite powerful, and it is a very clear example of "othering", in this case due to prejudice of ethnicity. Many genocides begin with similar "othering", at times according to race, religion, or economic status.
1. The 'other' is quite clearly referred to in the article "10 Oppressed Minorities Around the World" by Major Dan, a U.S. army veteran. All across the world, people who are seen to be different have regularly suffered oppression from a larger group of people. Many people hold prejudices, whether they do so consciously or instinctively. A lack of understanding is what leads us to fear one another, not a collection of truths. How minorities may be discriminated against was addressed in the article, which says, " Many countries have minorities that are discriminated against, either officially by law or by common practice" (Dan, 1). In pre-civil rights America, there were laws that allowed, and even promoted discrimination against minorities in the country. Such laws have since been abolished, but in other countries, similar laws are still in existence. Prejudice can be seen with reasons other than religion, race, and gender. Many people with disabilities and deformations are regularly discriminated against, at times unintentionally. Infrastructure may pose issues for people who have mobility issues, "... anywhere there are stairs and no elevators or ramps, narrow doorways, high door sills, bathrooms not adapted for handicapped use, street curbs and other monumental obstacles for the mobility of people suffering from limitations there is tremendous disadvantage for them" (1). It is also stated that prejudice due to appearance of those who have disabilities or are disfigured may prevent them from getting jobs they are fully qualified for because others may believe that they will be seen as 'problems' in the workplace later on. 2. In the historical fiction novel "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee, racial "othering" is present throughout the entirety of the story, as well as some religious and gender related discrimination. Miss Maudie said that she had encountered foot-washing baptists, who did not like her affinity for gardening. As Scout asks her about them, Miss Maudie goes into a greater depth with her explanation, saying, "'Foot-washers believe anything that's pleasure is a sin. Did you know some of 'em came out of the woods one Saturday and passed by this place and told me me and my flowers were going to hell?'... 'They thought I spent too much time in God's outdoors and not enough time inside the house reading the Bible'" (Lee 59). Because she did not agree with their religious practices, the foot-washers, as Miss Maudie called them, were very quick to criticize her lifestyle, and told her that she would not be going to heaven because of her garden. Miss Maudie, however laughed this off. This disagreement shows some discrimination due to spiritual beliefs, and likely could've developed into a far more dangerous confrontation under different circumstances. Similarly to the article, this shows that differences in beliefs can cause disagreements, which can easily lead to discrimination. Fortunately for Miss Maudie in this case, discrimination against herself would require a power shift, likely involving many people deciding to become foot-washing baptists.
1. Oppression against minorities is addressed within "Redemption Song" by Bob Marley and the Wailers. Bob Marley was born in 1945 in Jamaica, at the right time to witness the Civil Rights movement in the United States. He was quite famous for his music internationally, and is seen as a music icon to this day. One of the lines in "Redemption Song" says, "Emancipate yourselves from mental slavery. None but ourselves can free our minds!" (Marley Verse 2). This means says that one must enlighten themselves, and let their mind be free if they truly want to be free. Similar phrases were used in the Civil Rights Movement as well as by various Black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism leaders, especially in times of oppression. Although one may be cast out from society as a minority, they still have the freedom of thought, which cannot be taken away. Another part of the lyrics says, "How long shall they kill our prophets, While we stand aside and look?" (Verse 2). The prophets referred to in these lines are ones of oppressed minorities, such as Jesus, Malcom X, Martin Luther King Jr., and others. Bob Marley is saying that why stand idly by as we watch our oppressors assassinate our leaders, which enables the oppressors continue to make the minority seem like the other rather than regular people. 2. Oppression and social inequality is seen quite clearly in "To Kill a Mockingbird". One particular example would be the prejudice that the white population holds against Mr. Raymond, who is a white man that lives with the black population of the town. During the trial, Dill feels overwhelmed by what is going on inside the courthouse. As he rushes outside, Scout and Jem follow, just to make sure that he is alright. Upon heading outside, they encounter Mr. Raymond, who was mentioned earlier. As they speak with, Scout is rather hesitant to be near him, just because of his reputation, but soon warms up to him as she realizes that everything she has heard about Mr. Raymond is truly not as it seems, and in fact, he is a very kind man. As they continue to converse, they touch upon the topic of social equality, regarding the trial. Mr. Raymond then says that children are the only ones who, "Cry about the simple hell people give other people - without even thinking. Cry about the hell white people give colored folks, without even stopping to think that they’re people, too" (Lee 269). Children, in all of their innocence, are the only ones who really notice and question social inequality. As time went on in America, more and more people began to question segregation and social inequality. At that point, many 'prophets' of the Civil Rights Movement arose, such as Martin Luther King Jr. This caused white people to begin to think of those they saw as colored folks to be people too, which soon led to social equality. As Bob Marley mentioned, many of the 'prophets' were killed by those who were fighting against their causes. Nonetheless, children, and some objective adults, saw the social inequality happening around them, and some of them had the courage to take a stand.
1. This image is titled, "No hate, no fear in Bendigo". As the title suggests, this picture was taken in Bendigo, Australia. One can clearly see that this picture was taken during an anti-hate protest. There are numerous people in the background, some of which are holding different posters. The message on the sign states, "No hate, no fear". This is referring to the 'other'. If one is able to understand the 'other', then they will harbor less hatred toward them, and therefore there will be less social inequality. A very similar principle applies with fearing the other, the second half of the sign. This anti-hate protest shows social equality, for there is a large group of people voicing their opinions that social equality certainly benefits from. 2. Fearing and hating the 'other' can clearly be seen during Tom Robinson's trial in "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee. Many people believe the story presented by Mayella and Bob Ewell, or at least go along with it, primarily because the the accusers are white, and the accused, Tom, is black. They do not understand him at all, nor do they (The white people of Maycomb) recognize Tom Robinson as a human being. They do not harbor much fear for him in the trial, for he is restrained. Sadly, the seething hatred directed toward Tom can be seen by many white people in the town, who also seem to be angry with Atticus for simply defending Tom. Most of Maycomb is contradicting the message seen in the image above, for their prejudice against black people is leading toward hatred and fear of Tom. If they could simply understand his point of view, and that he is a human being with a family, just like them, the white folks of Maycomb would most likely no longer hate or fear him, but rather see him for the innocent, good man that he is.